Proposals by Rolls-Royce to build an engine test-bed at its new factory in East Kilbride have angered residents.
The East Kilbride plant overhauls aircraft engines
Campaigners, who are hoping to block a planning decision, said the facility could be detrimental to people's health and the local environment.
Large quantities of kerosene would be stored on site and burned into the air.
Rolls-Royce said the test-bed would make its new factory more competitive and insisted it would meet the latest environmental impact standards.
Rolls-Royce has been repairing aero-engines in East Kilbride for more than 50 years.
South Lanarkshire Council recently granted permission for a new £45m factory on the outskirts of the town.
Following the decision, the company then applied to build a testing facility beside the plant.
Residents living close to the proposed site are unhappy about the prospect of kerosene being burned into the air.
They also believe vibrations from the test-bed could damage the local Langlands Moss nature reserve and local wildlife.
Local campaign group chairman Colin McKay dismissed Rolls-Royce's claims that testing engines on site would improve efficiency.
He said: "The time saving from having the test-bed here and not remote from the factory is something in the region of 30 minutes in a 100 day engine turn around.
"The wider concerns are there are many primary schools and secondary schools within the locality and there is a country park down the road.
"People won't want to take their children and grandchildren there at the weekends if they're going to be covered in kerosene fumes."
The chimney for burning kerosene would be about a quarter of a mile from Maureen Potter's home.
"I'm really worried about the fumes that are going to be omitted from that", she said.
"From my research it would appear test-beds are exempt from a lot of different environmental pollution requirements, simply because they are not in continuous operation."
The planning hearing takes place on Tuesday.