The achievements of Scotland's answer to the Wright brothers have been marked in their home city.
Project co-ordinator Iain Sinclair beside the memorial
Harold and Frank Barnwell, from Stirling, made Scotland's first powered flight almost a century ago.
The brothers reached an altitude of 13ft when they travelled 80m over a field in the shadow of the Wallace Monument in 1909.
A sculpture which was commissioned to commemorate their award-winning biplane was unveiled on Wednesday.
Wilbur and Orville Wright made history in North Carolina in 1903 when they completed the world's first controlled, powered flight.
The Barnwell brothers' first experiments included gliders fitted with motorbike engines which they built in their garage in Causewayhead.
They ran the Grampian Motor and Engineering Company to fund their pioneering aviation work.
In July 1909 their biplane, powered by a car engine and piloted by Harold Barnwell, made the country's first powered flight.
In January 1911 a monoplane designed by the pair became the first Scottish plane to fly for more than a mile.
Causewayhead community councillor Iain Sinclair, a co-ordinator of the Barnwell Memorial project, said this aircraft had a large propeller and forward engine.
However, he said it was still of a "flimsy" construction and was running on pram wheels.
"I am terrified of flying in a modern aircraft. What must it have been like for them flying in what was not far short of chewing gum and bits of string.
"Not only had they to design and make the aeroplane but they also had to fly it."
Local historian Craig Mair said the brothers had a few "crashes and prangs" before their mile-long flight in 1911.
A great height
"Even that flight crashed as they tried to avoid telegraph wires and the railway line at Bridge of Allan," he said.
"But the brothers were lucky, perhaps because they weren't crashing from a great height so the impact wasn't too bad.
"They invariably walked away with cuts and bruises, but I am sure a feeling of elation that they had at least flown."
The brothers later moved to England, and were killed in separate flying accidents more than 20 years apart.
Their influence on aviation stretched to World War II, when bombers they designed helped win vital victories over Germany.
A silver granite sculpture by Cliff Bowen, a lecturer at Glasgow School of Art, was unveiled yards from the site of the Grampian Motor and Engineering Company.
The land has now been turned into a housing development, but some artefacts from the Barnwells' days were uncovered before the company closed.
An original wing strut is on display at the Stirling Smith Art Gallery and Museum.
Curator Elspeth King said: "We also have a significant amount of woodwork from these early aircraft and we are hoping to be able to perhaps construct part of the plane.
"At any rate we have got enough to do quite a significant exhibition."