More than three-quarters of Scotland's most deprived areas are in Glasgow, according to new figures.
Glasgow featured most in the 10 worst areas
The statistics published by the Scottish Executive said that 16 council wards within the city featured in the 20 worst areas.
Glasgow is also home to the three wards which come out worst on the list - Keppochhill, Drumry and Parkhead.
The Scottish Executive said it recognised that the wards identified in the Scottish Indices of Deprivation needed the most help.
The study measured employment income, health, education attainment and access to services in council wards across the country.
Levels of deprivation
Levels of deprivation are calculated on a scale of one to 100, with 100 being the worst.
Edinburgh, Renfrewshire, Dundee and the Highlands joined Glasgow on the list of areas with the highest levels of deprivation.
More than half the council wards in Glasgow and Dundee were within the worst 10% across Scotland.
THE 20 MOST DEPRIVED AREAS IN SCOTLAND
1 Keppochhill, Glasgow
2 Drumry, Glasgow
3 Parkhead, Glasgow
4 Craigmillar, Edinburgh
5 Hutchesontown, Glasgow
6 Bridgeton/Dalmarnock, Glasgow
7 Queenslie, Glasgow
8 Merkinch, Highland
9 Royston, Glasgow
10 Glenwood, Glasgow
11 St James, Renfrewshire
12 Braidfauld, Glasgow
13 Ibrox, Glasgow
14 Barlanark, Glasgow
15 Ashfield, Glasgow
16 Whitfield, Dundee
17 Milton, Glasgow
18 Wyndford, Glasgow
19 Easterhouse, Glasgow
20 Summerhill, Glasgow
More than one in 10 wards in West Dunbartonshire, Inverclyde, East Ayrshire, Clackmannanshire and North Ayrshire featured in the worst 10%.
Deputy social justice minister Des McNulty said there had been "significant investment in regeneration" in Glasgow.
The city council has received £110m from the executive to tackle deprivation since 1999.
"We recognise that the wards identified need the most help," he said.
"This is why our expenditure is targeting those areas - and is making a difference for the people living in those communities."
Mr McNulty said the research would assist the fight against poverty.
"It highlights what we already know - that there are still some communities that do not adequately share in our nation's prosperity.
"That is why the executive has put closing the opportunity gap at the heart of everything we do," he said.
Danny Phillips, the Scottish spokesman for the Child Poverty Action Group, said the report provided "valuable information" in the fight against poverty.
"These figures are concerning and do show how society remains unequal and how much more needs to be done," he said.
"Poverty levels in Scotland are some of the worst in Europe.
"The executive needs to do more to attack poverty and this issue has to be a major priority in the forthcoming elections."
The study was carried out by the Social Disadvantage Research Centre at Oxford University.