Mr Anderson says the local Labour Party has lost its "arrogance"
Labour have taken control of Liverpool City Council for the first time since 1998.
Led by Joe Anderson, they grabbed power from the Liberal Democrats and now boast a three-seat majority.
Mr Anderson said: "We have been making gains year on year, it was our time - they are fantastic results."
Labour gained nine seats - including West Derby, Picton and Old Swan - and Mr Anderson hailed the hard work and campaigning of local people.
Leader of the council's Lib Dems, Warren Bradley, told BBC News his party would "live to fight another day".
"My four and a half year record speaks for itself.
"I will be speaking to the party about my future, but it's all about campaigning harder and taking seats back next year."
Warren Bradley said his party would "live to fight another day"
The Lib Dems were hanging on to the council by a slender majority of just one seat - they kept power last year by signing a deal with a local Independent councillor.
Mr Anderson, who says he is going to lead the council on a full-time basis, has named social housing as one of his priorities.
"We have a housing shortage list of 23,000 and we have 13,000 boarded up properties that are not in use.
"We need to redevelop these as a priority.
"Working with private landlords and forming partnerships will help do that.
"Being in opposition for so many years has ensured we have lost the arrogance we used to have when we lost power. We will fight for the people of this city."
Liverpool City Council now has 48 Labour councillors, 37 Liberal Democrats, three Liberals and two from the Green Party.