A bill to introduce a new national coroners service with full-time coroners and a right of appeal for families is also planned.
Tests for immigrants to receive British citizenship are to be made tougher, with newcomers expected to learn English and prove they are making an economic contribution.
Hospital funding will be linked to performance in England by using patient experience to measure quality of care and an NHS constitution established to set out the standards patients can expect.
The long-term unemployed will be forced to retrain or face having their benefits cut under a Welfare Reform Bill.
Mr Cameron said he welcomed many of the measures, as his party had proposed them in the first place.
"This Queen's Speech has nothing to do with the long-term needs of the country and everything to do with your short term political survival," he told Mr Brown.
"We need a government that tackles the underlying causes of poverty, that fights family breakdown, that breaks open the monopoly of state education - we need a government that can work with the voluntary sector.
"You can't do that and we can."
Lid Dem leader Nick Clegg said Mr Brown had faced "a desperate week", with early announcements on the 10p tax rate and "a rag bag of proposals" in the draft Queen's speech.
"I've no idea what we can expect you to bring forward next - Christmas? How desperate are you?"
Critics say Mr Brown's decision to preview the government's programme diminishes the role of the monarch and the relevance of the State Opening of Parliament in November.
But the government says it is appropriate to announce proposed measures earlier to allow consultation over the summer, resulting in a more concrete Queen's Speech.
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