Former England football manager Sir Bobby Robson and rowing champion Sir Matthew Pinsent are among the famous faces to decide who receives honours.
Sir Bobby Robson is among the sporting stars involved
The committees that scrutinise nominations for honours have until now been headed by civil servants but are now being recruited in an open process.
Paralympics star Tanni Grey Thompson and ex-England cricket captain Tony Lewis are both on the sports committee.
Novelist and poet Ben Okri is among those looking at arts world honours.
The new committees follow a review of the honours system by Sir Hayden Phillips. The chairmen have been recruited by an open selection process.
The committees will advise the UK's top civil servant, Cabinet Secretary Gus O'Donnell, on candidates the prime minister should recommend to the Queen for honours.
Sir Gus will chair the main honours committee, which includes the chairmen of the eight sub-committees, the chief of the defence staff, the Foreign Office's top civil servant and Tony Blair's secretary for appointments.
They will meet twice a year to discuss the New Year and Birthday Honours lists. The panel will still include some civil servants.
The chairmen of the new committees were announced in June but the other members have only now been unveiled.
The honours system has previously come under fire for being too secretive.
Leaked stories about honours discussions suggest some candidates have been rejected in the past because they are too controversial, while some celebrities were included to "add colour" to the lists.
Downing Street says opening the system up to competition will "improve transparency and accountability in the honours system".
Here is the full lists of the eight committees:
ARTS AND MEDIA COMMITTEE
Chairman: Lord Rothschild, first chairman of the Heritage Lottery Fund and deputy chairman of BSkyB
Jenny Abramsky, director of BBC radio and music
John Gross, author and former editor of The Times Literary Supplement
Ben Okri, novelist and poet
Andreas Whittam Smith, former editor of the Independent newspaper and ex-president of the British Board of Film Classification
Civil servants: Dame Sue Street, permanent secretary at Department of the Culture, Media and Sport; John Elvidge, permanent secretary of the Scottish Executive; William Chapman, prime minister's appointments' secretary.
Chairwoman: Dame Carol Black, president of the Royal College of Physicians
Professor Mansel Aylward, chairman of the Wales Centre for Health
Dame Karlene Davis, general secretary of the Royal College of Midwives
Niall Dickson, chief executive of the King's Fund
Professor Sir Netar Mallick, medical director of the Advisory Committee on Clinical Excellence Awards
Professor Anthony Newman Taylor, deputy chief executive and consultant physician, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust
Professor Irene Scott, director of Nursing at Surrey and Sussex Healthcare NHS Trust
Civil servants: Sir Nigel Crisp, permanent secretary of Department of Health; Sir Liam Donaldson, chief medical officer in England; Dr Henrietta Campbell, chief medical officer, Northern Ireland; Paul Martin, chief nursing officer, Scotland; William Chapman, prime minister's appointments' secretary.
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY COMMITTEE
Chairman: Lord May of Oxford, President of the Royal Society
Professor Sir Richard Brook, director of the Leverhulme Trust
Professor Sir Partha Dasgupta, Frank Ramsay Professor of Economics at Cambridge University
Professor Dame Julia Higgins, vice-president of the Royal Society
Rob Margetts, chairman of the Legal and General Group
Professor Noreen Murray, geneticist, University of Edinburgh, ex-vice-president of the Royal Society
Civil servants: Sir Brian Bender, permanent secretary, Department of Trade and Industry; Sir David King, government chief scientific adviser; William Chapman, prime minister's appointments' secretary.
EDUCATION AND TECHNOLOGY COMMITTEE
Chairwoman: Dame Alexandra Burslem, vice-chancellor of Manchester Metropolitan University
John Anderson, professional officer at the General Teaching Council for Scotland
Professor Sir George Bain, president and retired vice-chancellor of Queen's University, Belfast
James Gillard, vice-president of the Eastern Region National Association of Head Teachers
Professor Ludmilla Jordanova, director of the Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities at Cambridge University
Mary Oliver, special needs officer, Conwy County Borough Council Education Department
Sir Mike Tomlinson, ex-chief inspector of schools
Civil servants: Sir David Normington, permanent secretary at the Department for Education and Skills; Nigel Hamilton, Northern Ireland Executive; William Chapman, prime minister's appointments' secretary.
Chairman: Sir John Collins, chairman of Dixons Group
Peter Chappelow, portfolio chairman of venture capital backed companies
Rosemarie Harris, South Wales farmer, ex-County President of the Young Farmers' Federation
Christopher Hyman, chief executive of SERCO plc
Rob Margetts, chairman of Legal and General
Dame Steve Shirley, entrepreneur
David Thomas, former chief executive of Whitbread, current chairman of In Kind Direct
Civil servants: Sir Brian Bender, permanent secretary of the Department for Trade and Industry; Nicholas Macpherson, permanent secretary at the Treasury; Dame Sue Street, permanent secretary of the Department for Culture, Media and Sport; John Elvidge, permanent secretary of the Scottish Executive; William Chapman, prime minister's appointments secretary.
Chairman: Sir David Cooksey, former director of the Bank of England and former chairman of the Audit Commission
Mohammed Aziz, director of Faithwise and commissioner at the Commission for Racial Equality
Dame Jessica Rawson, Warden, Merton College, Oxford
Sir Mike Tomlinson, ex-chief inspector of schools
Civil servants: Sir Gus O'Donnell, Cabinet secretary; Alex Allan, permanent secretary of the Department for Constitutional Affairs; William Chapman, prime minister's appointments' secretary.
COMMUNITY, VOLUNTARY AND LOCAL SERVICES COMMITTEE
Chairman: Lord Newton of Braintree, former Cabinet minister
Mohammed Aziz, director of Faithwise
Sir Jeremy Beecham, Vice-chairman of the Local Government Association, former Leader of Newcastle City Council
Christine Harris, consultant on community foundations
Professor Ted Milburn, former professor of community education and director of the Centre for Youth Work Studies at Strathclyde University
Elspeth Mitcheson, former director of leisure and heritage, Isle of Anglesey
Richard Temple Cox, chairman of the Community Regeneration Partnership
Mary Thomas, Magistrate in the Pennine Division
Civil servants: Sir John Gieve, permanent secretary at the Home Office; Dame Mavis McDonald, permanent secretary at the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister; Sir David Normington, permanent secretary at the Department for Education and Skills; Alex Allan, permanent secretary at the Department for Constitutional Affairs; Sir Joe Pilling, permanent secretary of the Northern Ireland Office; William Chapman, prime minister's appointments secretary.
Chairman: Lord MacLaurin of Knebworth, chairman of Vodafone Group
Dame Tanni Grey Thompson, multi-gold medal winning paralympics athlete
Tony Lewis, former England cricket captain, chairman of MCC Cricket
Ian McGeechan, ex-international rugby player/Scotland and British Lions coach
Sir Matthew Pinsent, multi-Olympic gold medallist
Sir Bobby Robson, ex-England/Newcastle United/Ipswich Town football manager
Tessa Sanderson, Olympic gold medallist javelin thrower
Civil servants: Dame Sue Street, Sir Jon Shortridge, permanent secretary at the National Assembly for Wales; William Chapman, prime minister's appointments secretary.