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Last Updated: Wednesday, 19 November, 2003, 16:28 GMT
Key points: Bush's speech
Here are the key points from President George Bush's keynote speech in London on the first day of his state visit.

Three pillars of peace and security

  • International institutions: "Like 11 presidents before me I believe in international institutions... they must be alert to the dangers facing our world... from lifting up failing states to opposing proliferation... (but) it's not enough to meet the dangers of the world with resolutions."

  • Willingness to use force as last resort: "Those in authority are not judged only by good motivation. The people have given us the duty to defend them. That duty sometimes requires the violent restraint of violent men. In some cases the measured use of force is all that protect us from a chaotic world ruled by force."
  • The expansion of democracy: "The third pillar is our commitment to the global expansion of democracy" as an alternative to "instability and hatred and terror"...It was "condescending" to see democracy and Islam as incompatible
  • Iraq

  • The US honoured the sacrifice of British troops in Iraq.
  • Mr Bush contrasted the rise of international terrorism with the rise of Hitler's Germany

    He said: "Free nations failed to recognise, much less confront, the aggressive evil in plain sight."

  • Mr Bush highlighted some of the changes in Iraq since the invasion including a burgeoning media and school textbooks free of propaganda.
  • He said the failure of democracy in Iraq would throw the country back into chaos.
  • Force against Iraq had only followed after diplomatic attempts had failed.
  • Mr Bush said that the people of Iraq had rejoiced at the fall of Saddam Hussein.
  • The failure of democracy in Iraq would throw its people back into misery and turn that country over to terrorists who wish to destroy us
    George W Bush

  • The US president said that sometimes the measured use of force became necessary, such as in the Balkans and in Afghanistan.
  • "We did not charge hundreds of miles into the heart of Iraq and pay a bitter cost of casualties and liberate 25 million people only to retreat before a band of thugs and assassins".

  • He said the reconstruction of Iraq was happening at a quicker pace than in Germany and Japan after World War Two.
  • United Nations and Nato

  • Nato and the European Union had to work together in order to thwart future dangers.
  • Mr Bush said Nato was the "most successful multilateral organisation in history".
  • Mr Bush said the global demands of terror required a global response - that required the UN to be credible.
  • Mr Bush said it was not enough to meet the dangers of the world with resolutions - they must be met with resolve.
  • Mr Bush acknowledged the "principled objections" of some to the use of force but people in authority were not just judged by their good motives.
  • Middle East

  • Decades of failed Western policy in the Middle East must now be abandoned.
  • "Your nation and mine in the past have been too willing to make a bargain, to tolerate oppression for the sake of stability."
  • "This bargain did not bring stability or make us safe. It merely bought time while problems festered and ideologies of violence took hold."
  • Mr Bush said that by extending trade, prosperity would spread and with it freedom would flourish.
  • The universal appeal of freedom was one of the weapons in the fight against international terrorism.
  • We must shake off decades of failed policy in the Middle East - your nation and mine in the past have been willing to make a bargain, to tolerate oppression for the sake of stability
    George W Bush

  • Mr Bush said that he wanted a viable Palestinian state and security for Israel.
  • By resolving that issue a major excuse for hatred and resentment in the Middle East would be removed, said Mr Bush.
  • The Palestinian people deserved real leaders who were capable of bringing about a Palestinian state.
  • Israel should dismantle unauthorised outposts and stop the daily humiliation of the Palestinian people.
  • All leaders should strongly oppose anti-Semitism which poisoned hopes for progress in the Middle East.
  • "The stakes in that region could not be higher. If the Middle East remains a place where freedom doesn't flourish, it will remain a place of stagnation and anger and violence for export."
  • "As we saw in the ruins of two towers, no distance on the map will protect our lives and our way of life."
  • British-American Relations

  • President George Bush said he was honoured to be in the United Kingdom and said he brought the good wishes of the American people.
  • The US president joked that demonstrations to mark his visit showed freedom of speech was alive in London.
  • America has always found strong partners in London, leaders of good judgment and blunt counsel and backbone when times are tough
    George W Bush

  • Mr Bush said the UK and US had an "alliance of values".
  • The UK and US shared a mission in advancing freedom and the peace that came with it.
  • Mr Bush said the US had always found good allies in London and he said Tony Blair had his "respect and deepest thanks".
  • The US was fortunate to call the United Kingdom its closest ally in the world.

    US President George W Bush
    Watch the speech point-by-point


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