Two County Carlow men have been charged with membership of an illegal organisation at the Special Criminal Court in Dublin.
It follows a Garda investigation into dissident republicans.
Mark Doran, 26, of Poachers Lock and Patrick Dermody, 20, of New Road, both Leighlinbridge, are accused of being in an organisation styling itself the IRA.
Mr Dermody was also charged with the possession of a double barrelled shotgun for an unlawful purpose.
Both men were remanded in custody until next Wednesday when a bail application is expected to be made.