It lived for centuries, covered a quarter of the world's landmass and radically shaped modern-day Britain, yet schools have tended to sidestep the thorny history of the British Empire. Now, slowly, that's changing.
By Jonathan Duffy
BBC News Online Magazine
The British Empire and Commonwealth Museum, like the very institution it was set up to commemorate, did not happen without a fight.
Katherine Hann, one of the museum's founders, recalls the hostility she encountered when trying to whip up enthusiasm for the project in the mid 1990s.
"Empire was a dirty word. You almost felt you were going to be spat at when you mentioned it in polite company," she says. "We couldn't get any government funding in those days. It was politically incorrect to talk about empire."
Yet the prevailing climate changed and today the museum is a reality, chronicling Britain's imperial history from John Cabot's first foray across the Atlantic in 1497 (where he discovered Newfoundland) to the handing back of Hong Kong to China 500 years later.
For many children though, a trip to the museum will be one of the few chances they have to learn about this vast tract of British history.
The word "empire" still does not issue easily from all lips. A parliamentary report into the honours system, published on Tuesday, calls the word, which figures in the OBE (Officer of the Order of British Empire), "anachronistic" and "insensitive".
Last year, the black British poet Benjamin Zephaniah famously spurned an OBE saying it stood for colonial brutality and slavery.
Angry at the empire: Benjamin Zephaniah
For decades school teachers have shied away from tackling this unfashionable subject head-on, fearing stories of British power and oppression will stir up racial tensions in the playground.
But that is starting to change.
A small but growing number of classrooms are starting to fizz with tales of the British Raj, the Irish potato famine and Dr Livingstone's exploits in Africa.
The issue remains highly contentious, but supporters sense the balance is shifting in their favour.
Ofsted, which monitors school standards in England, has renewed its call for more teaching of the history of British Empire, believing it has been neglected in favour of subjects such as World War II.
The Prince of Wales has also joined the debate and found a supportive voice in TV academic Niall Ferguson, who wants the empire to become the central organising theme of history lessons in secondary school.
Black British historian Steve Martin welcomes the idea of teaching children about the empire. But all too often it is told only from the "white perspective", he says.
60% of Britons take pride in the empire
Yet most do not think it should have a 'large' place in the history curriculum
Almost half confess to 'not knowing much' about the empire
Source: Yougov, Aug 2003
"I remember being taught this at school in the 70s and there was no criticism of the British and no attempt to understand the experiences of those they conquered," says Mr Martin.
Katherine Hann says the most difficult scenario is when there's a class dominated by white children, with just one or two pupils from other ethnic backgrounds.
"Teachers are concerned that in these situations, the white children could use it as a way of intimidating the few black pupils."
Michael Riley, co-author of a new text book called The Impact of Empire, written for children aged 11 to 14, says one of the main obstacles to teaching the history of the empire is giving coherence to such a complex and vast subject.
And, it's no longer good enough to tell just one side of the story.
So, for example, children using his book are asked to consider the reputation of Lord Clive, whose warrior efforts helped conquer India.
"In the 1950s, Clive of India was held up as a Beckham-like schoolboy hero. We want the children to reconsider whether he deserves the praise."
Last days of the Raj: Viceroy Mountbatten in Delhi, 1947
In another chapter, pupils are asked to write a letter to Lord Mountbatten (the last viceroy of India) asking him to grant independence.
Mr Riley's book has been selling well and while teachers may be cautious about wading into these troublesome waters, children, he says, really enjoy the topic.
"We finish the book asking pupils to consider whether the empire was a good thing or a bad thing. It's deliberately a non-question, one that can't be answered because there are so many different viewpoints."
Nevertheless, it seems to be a question that teachers will increasingly have to grapple with.
Add your comments to this story using the form below:
As long as the subject is taught without bias, it is surely of benefit to the pupils. There is much to be proud of in our history and much to be ashamed of. But all of it must be taught so that today's pupils can draw their own conclusions
Robert Barr, Scotland
About time too! Rather than concentrate on "slavery & oppression" we should be reminded that the British were the first civilisation to ban slavery and actively hunt down and hang slavers. We turned a dozen or so princedoms into the largest democracy on earth (India) and laid down the basis for half the world's legal systems.
Peter, Nottingham, UK
There should be nothing wrong with telling the history of the British Empire as long as it provides an un-biased view of the good, bad and the ugly. In the US, history is not given its proper context in schools and subjects that do not fit the politicaly correct norm are not discussed or glossed over.
Peter Harper, United States
The British Empire has a lasting legacy. The impact of colonisation can still be seen throughout Africa and India. I think our children should learn about the British influence that has shaped many countries, and the good and bad consequences of our history.
Becky Hughes, England
How can we estblish the value, or otherwise, of the Empire? Possibly we should compare results. Compare Malaysia to Indonesia, Australia to Argentina, Hong Kong to China. I would suggest the legacy is positive.
As with all history the subject should be taught in an objective and detached manner. The British Empire was a significant period, not just in the history of Britain, but the world. Debating the pros and cons in the context of modern values is wrong. There is no doubt that today our attitudes and approaches are different but it does not give us the right to judge our fore fathers.
Gary Aldam, UK
When I was doing my O-levels in Aden in the 1950s, we were taught the history of the British Empire. I was surprised to discover pupils in Britain didn't have to learn it, but were taught ancient history or something similar.
CK Yoe, UK
Yes we should be proud of the empire. It has inculcated a great respect for the idea of fair play across large parts of the globe. Compared with the other major European empires it was tolerant and inclusive. Not the least, Britain deserves credit for largely dismantling it without violence.
Robert Wiener, New Zealand
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