The plans had attracted opposition from campaigners
Plans for an energy from waste plant (EfW) in Oxfordshire have been rejected by county councillors.
Last month, the council selected the site at Ardley near Bicester as a preferred option for an incinerator to deal with Oxfordshire's rubbish.
A separate proposal for Sutton Courtenay near Didcot was also considered, but planning approval for that location was also turned down.
Both plans have attracted opposition from campaigners.
Jonathan O'Neill, from Ardley Against the Incinerator, said: "It's fantastic news.
"There is no doubt that people power helped today."
The council said it would now be "considering its options".
Viridor, which would operate the Ardley site, said it would also review the situation.
Robert Ryan, project manager, said: "Viridor is disappointed with the committee's decision to refuse our application, despite recommendation for approval by the council's planning officers and a clear need to divert waste from landfill."
Councillors voting against the plans said the benefits of a waste disposal site did not outweigh the cost to the environment.
Oxfordshire County Council aims to incinerate about 300,000 tonnes of waste a year and increase the amount it recycles - currently 47% - to at least 55% annually.
In response to health and environmental concerns raised by campaigners, the authority said that the technology was widely used.
The Health Protection Agency also stated in September that modern incinerators did not pose a significant risk to public health.