An animal rights campaigner has been charged with a number of arson attacks on Oxford University.
Mel Broughton, 47, appeared before Banbury Magistrates' Court and was remanded to appear at Oxford Crown Court on 21 December.
The charges include two counts of possession or control of an explosive substance with intent to endanger life or damage property.
The offences are alleged to have been committed in 2006 and 2007.
The first at Queens College in November 2006 and the second at Templeton College in February this year.
He is also charged with one count of conspiracy to blackmail and two counts of having an article with intent to destroy or damage property.
Mr Broughton, from Semilong Road, Northampton is a founder member of SPEAK, which campaigns against animal testing.