The Chief Constable of Thames Valley Police has been given the job of overseeing improvements to policing across the UK.
Mr Neyroud will oversee the National Policing Improvement Agency
Peter Neyroud has been appointed chief executive designate of the new National Policing Improvement Agency by Home Secretary Charles Clarke.
Mr Neyroud is expected to take up his post in January.
The agency will oversee the setting up of national force IT systems and the extending of neighbourhood policing.
Making the announcement, Mr Clarke said: "Mr Neyroud will have a critical role in driving forward major improvements in policing which are a key part of the police reform agenda."
Mr Neyroud, who has overseen the Thames Valley force since 2002, said: "I am delighted to have the opportunity to take on this new and challenging role.
"Delivering continuous improvements in policing is vital to the police service and to the communities and people we serve."
As chief executive designate, Mr Neyroud - who was appointed to help choose the winner of the first ever Nobel Prize for criminology earlier this year - will help set up the agency in "shadow" form.
Subject to the passing of the necessary legislation, it is hoped the agency will formally come into existence in April 2007.