A former member of MI6 was remanded in custody when he appeared in court charged with breaching the Official Secrets Act.
Daniel Houghton, 25, of Hoxton, north London, has been accused of leaking electronic files with articles about intelligence-gathering methods.
Mr Houghton was also charged with stealing MI5 files between September 2007 and May 2009.
He will appear before City of Westminster magistrates on 11 March.
The charge sheet says Mr Houghton, who holds British and Dutch nationality, is a former member of the British Secret Intelligence Service, or MI6, and alleges he disclosed files he had through his position with the service.