Transport Secretary Lord Adonis said he "deplored" the Tube strike, as services slowly returned to normal following the 48-hour walkout.
The Rail, Maritime and Transport (RMT) action ended at 1859 BST but Transport for London (TfL) said a full service would not resume until Friday morning.
Liberal Democrat Lord Bradshaw called the behaviour of RMT leader Bob Crow and strikers "utterly reprehensible".
The walkout followed a breakdown in pay talks with London Underground (LU).
Further talks between the LU and RMT - which wants a 5% pay rise and a promise of no compulsory redundancies - will be held next week to try to end the dispute.
During a Lords debate on public transport, Lord Adonis said: "I deplore the underground strike in London today and urge the RMT to engage constructively with Transport for London to ensure that there is no repetition."
Lord Bradshaw said: "The behaviour of Mr Crow and the RMT is utterly reprehensible. There are mechanisms for dealing with disputes.
'Held to ransom'
"People working on the Underground are well paid and they have long holidays. The strikers' behaviour has been pretty disgraceful."
He added: "Londoners are being held to ransom and many people who are in fear of losing their jobs are making extraordinary efforts to get to work because they think that if they are missed for a couple of days they can be missed for a good deal longer."
On Thursday Mr Crow accused London mayor Boris Johnson of "playing politics" with the Tube by deliberately intervening to scupper a last-minute deal.
Mr Johnson said the allegation was "completely untrue".
TUBE LINE UPDATES
Northern Line - Full service
District Line - Trains from Wimbledon to High Street Kensington and Ealing Broadway; Whitechapel to Upminster
Jubilee Line - Full service
Metropolitan Line - Trains from Moorgate to Harrow-on-the-Hill and Watford; Baker Street and Amersham
Piccadilly Line - Trains from Arnos Grove to Cockfosters; Heathrow (terminals 123) and Acton Town
Victoria Line - Trains from Seven Sisters to Victoria
Bakerloo Line - Queen's Park to Elephant & Castle
Central Line - Liverpool Street to Epping and Hainault; White City to Ealing Broadway and West Ruislip
Circle Line - Suspended
Hammersmith and City Line - Hammersmith to Baker Street
Waterloo and City - Suspended
However Labour's Andrew Dismore told the Commons that a debate was needed to establish the mayor's involvement in pre-strike talks.
"There's a real suspicion that the mayor of London's fingers are all over the provocation of this dispute," Mr Dismore said.
A spokesman for Mr Johnson has denied that the mayor had any involvement in the negotiations before the walkout.
Nine Tube lines were affected by the industrial action as commuters struggled to get in to work on overcrowded buses and gridlocked roads.
A service continued on the Northern and Jubilee lines, however, while London Overground and Docklands Light Railway services operated as normal.
TfL drafted in an extra 100 buses, offered escorts for cyclists and a free river ferry service.
The London Chamber of Commerce has estimated the capital's economy will lose more than £100m as a result of the strike.
On Thursday a TfL spokesman said: "There has been an exchange of letters this afternoon between London Underground and the RMT leadership via Acas to set out the basis for further discussions at Acas on the remaining issues in dispute, notably redundancy arrangements."