Motorists are likely to win an appeal against unfair parking fines if they pursue the case, research has found.
Most councils do not challenge repeated parking fine appeals
Consumer rights magazine Which? found most councils did not contest repeated challenges against penalties.
In 2005 more than 60% of parking fine appeals in three London boroughs were won uncontested, Which? said.
Consumer rights group Appeal Now, said councils offered no evidence in 50% of cases, showing they would rather cancel tickets than continue disputes.
The Which? research found in Scotland 70% of appellants won their case in 2006-2007.
Statistics from the National Parking Adjudication Service revealed about eight million parking tickets were issued in 2005 across England and Wales (excluding London).
Of these 9,449 fines were challenged and 57% of them were won by motorists, and 2,749 cases were uncontested.
The survey found London boroughs of Hackney, Hillingdon and Southwark chose not to contest more than 60% of appeals.
But Stockport Council in Cheshire did not receive a single appeal despite posting 23,000 tickets on vehicles.
Lambeth Council told the magazine due to an IT fault it sent 8,000 bailiff warning letters to motorists who had challenged their fines.
The council has since refunded 212 people who paid up.
Which? editor Neil Fowler said councils readily slapped fines on motorists with "one eye on their income".
"Many motorists will simply give in and pay up, but if you think a parking ticket is unjustified it's well worth challenging it and, if the challenge is rejected, appealing against the decision."
David Sparks, chairman of the Local Government Association's transport and regeneration board, said only a "tiny fraction" of tickets were challenged but added that genuine complaints should be pursued.