Anti-witch charms and a Roman curse tablet are among the artefacts on display at a museum this Halloween.
Wine jars were reused as charms
People can also speculate over the origins of a modern witching bottle containing coins, teeth, metal wrapped in paper and a phial of liquid.
It is thought people reused wine jars as charms against witchcraft, filling them with human hair, nail clippings and even urine.
The pieces are on display at the Museum in Docklands, London, until 7 November.
Hedley Swain, head of Early London History, said: "London has always been a city of many beliefs, both orthodox and less conventional.
"These artefacts wonderfully illustrate how, when you scratch the surface of Halloween and trick-or-treat, there are superstitions that go back many hundreds of years."
Also being shown is a 17th Century jar, excavated in Rotherhithe, south-east London, which is typical of the jugs used to ward off evil spirits.