The fine for failing to pay the congestion charge is to increase by 25% from £40 to £50.
The new fine is in line with penalties for parking offences
From Monday the fine will be the same as that paid by drivers who stop in bus lanes and commit parking offences.
The increase aims to deter those who try to avoid paying the charge, Transport for London (TfL) said.
The fine, which is incurred if the congestion charge is not paid before 10pm on the day of entering the zone, rises from £50 to £100 after 14 days.
After 28 days the fine becomes £150 - previously £120.
Malcolm Murray Clarke, congestion charge director, said the changes would ensure the "fair but firm" enforcement of payment.
He said: "Raising the value of the penalty charge notices will bring congestion charging in line with other traffic offences and increase the deterrence factor
to those who do not pay the charge."
A clampdown on those who falsely claim they live within the congestion charges zone in order to claim a discount is also due to be launched.