London Underground (LU) passengers could get air-cooled trains as a part of a £10bn, five year investment plan announced by mayor Ken Livingstone.
Mr Livingstone said it was a "once-in-a-lifetime opportunity"
The proposals include extensions to the Docklands Light Railway, the Metropolitan Line and the Croydon Tramlink. There is also a new road bridge linking Greenwich and Newham.
The western extension of the congestion charge zone is also included.
But the proposals do not include Crossrail, the east to west train link.
Mr Livingstone said: "This is a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to reverse decades of under-investment.
"The programme will deliver the real improvements in the services and capacity needed to keep London on the move.
"Whether you walk, cycle or travel by bus or Tube, over the next five years your journey should become safer, more reliable and more comfortable, and London will be a world leader for environmentally friendly and accessible public transport."
Subject to approval by the Transport for London (TfL) board, other projects include traffic congestion-easing measures, new air-cooled Tube trains, extending the East London line to Dalston, Croydon and Crystal Palace, and West London Tram and Cross River Tram projects.
But the London Assembly's Conservative transport spokesman Roger Evans said: "Londoners have been duped. The mayor's plan means Londoners face at least two more years of inflation-busting fares while getting little in return.
"The major projects that would make a real difference - such as Crossrail and Thameslink are barely mentioned.
IMPROVEMENTS AT A GLANCE
Extending the East London line and DLR
Extending out the Metropolitan Line to Watford Junction to link with the national rail network.
Expanding the congestion charge zone westwards
The Thames Gateway Bridge, the first new Thames road bridge in 70 years, which will link Greenwich and Newham
Widening the North Circular
Construction of the West London Tram and Cross River Tram
Constructing a showcase Tube station at Wembley Park
Completing the switch of buses to low-floor accessible vehicles, with CCTV by 2006
Banning polluting lorries and vans from Greater London
An accelerated programme to make more London Underground stations step-free
"The mayor's plans are also far too Olympics focused. If we don't get the Olympics we are going to have a lot of transport white elephants in a few years time."
The mayor has already announced 10% bus fare increases in real terms for next year and 1% increases in real terms on Tube fares.
Mr Livingstone said that such 10% bus fare increases would have to go on for three years to fund the programme announced on Tuesday, while 1% Tube increases would have to carry on "year by year".
The mayor also said that he expected to make a public announcement early in November about a possible increase in the £5 congestion charge.
The investment follows a ground-breaking agreement with the government.
For the first time, TfL has been allowed to borrow to get major projects moving.
The £3bn in new borrowing comes on top of £4 billion scheduled to go into the Tube network as a result of the existing public-private partnership contracts.
The remaining £3bn of capital investment will be funded by government grants and revenue.