Gordon Brown has hit out at celebrities for their "casual attitude" towards drugs, and called for more positive role models.
Dame Kelly Holmes won Olympic gold in 800m and 1500m
Mr Brown said children should look up to positive figures like athlete and double Olympic gold medallist Dame Kelly Holmes.
It was vital sportsmen and pop stars denounced illegal substances, he added.
Celebrities should not think their position put them "above the law", said the prime minister.
He was speaking at a "citizen's jury" event in central London which was broadcast to 400 parents, teachers, children and social workers across the country.
Mr Brown said Dame Kelly had agreed to support an initiative to speak out against drugs, and called for more high-profile celebrities to do the same.
He said: "There may be others who can be role models for young people just as friends can be, just as neighbours can be, and people who have a national standing who can do so."
"On the other side of this we've got celebrities who take a very casual attitude to drugs, who think that their standing in the community makes them above the law.
"And that is another area where I think we've got to send a very clear message - not only that we will not decriminalise drugs, but at the same time that this is unacceptable behaviour."
The announcement was welcomed and supported by school and charity leaders.
Steve Sinnott, the general secretary of the National Union of Teachers, said: "The celebrity culture has got out of hand.
"Schools can play their part but those in the public eye, particularly celebrities in the media, should be aware that their actions are watched minutely by impressionable youngsters."
Martin Barnes, chief executive of DrugScope, a drugs information charity, added: "There can be no room for complacency, we still have one of the highest levels of drug use in Europe.
"DrugScope welcomes the Prime Minister's concern and interest in this issue."
Doherty has been quizzed on a number of occasions over drugs
But Andrew Harrison, editor-in-chief of music magazine Mixmag, said seeing celebrities with addiction problems would stop young people taking drugs.
He said: "There is a merry-go-round for celebrities. They're on the hedonistic circuit, then they're in rehab, then they're out again and we tend to wait for them to relapse.
"I think people like Amy Winehouse and, particularly, Pete Doherty, the message that they convey is actually through their conduct. You look at Pete Doherty, he's no good advert for heroin.
"In fact, if anything the decline of Pete Doherty has been quite a powerful image in itself."
People are being asked for their views on services as well as the roles of parents and communities and what to do to keep children safe and healthy.
The government says it will use the answers to help draw up a 10-year plan for children's services.
The Time to Talk consultation will end on 19 October and the Children's Plan is expected to be published in December.