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Sunday, November 14, 1999 Published at 09:36 GMT


Education

Female dons losing out on pay

Nafthe wants a level playing field for male and female academics

New figures show how much more male academics are paid than their female colleagues at almost every university and college in the UK.

A league table of pay, compiled by the National Association of Teachers in Further and Higher Education (Natfhe), shows that on average, men are paid £4,307 a year more than women.

Click here for the full list.

The worst pay gap occurs at the London Business School (LBS), where men receive an average of more than £19,000 a year more than women.

There are only two colleges where female academics earn slightly more than their male counterparts - Glasgow College of Art, and King Alfred's College, Winchester.

Natfhe, which put the table together using figures supplied by the Higher Education Statistics Agency, says it highlights the "massive problem" of sex discrimination throughout the higher education system.

Urgent action

Tom Wilson, head of the union's universities' department, said the differences in pay were caused by a number of factors - such as subject mix and promotion rates - but that no reasons were justifiable.

Following the Bett report into higher education pay and conditions, a working party set up by employers to look at equal opportunities would meet for the first time later this month, and Nafthe would be pressing it to take urgent action to address the pay imbalance, he said.

"We have been campaigning about this for the last 10 years. We don't want allowances to be made for women, but we want a level playing field."


[ image: Some subjects are traditionally male-dominated]
Some subjects are traditionally male-dominated
The table shows that the largest difference between men and women's salaries tends to occur in "old" universities established before 1992, and particularly in those which teach traditionally male-dominated subjects such as science, technology and medicine.

At the other end of the scale, the smallest gap in pay is generally found in "new" universities and colleges of higher education, which focus on teacher training and the humanities - typically subject areas which attract more women.

Mr Wilson said a large part of the difference between the "old" and "new" universities could be explained by the smaller proportion of staff promoted within "new" universities. This meant the opportunity for discrimination in promotion was reduced.

"Fewer women get promoted - less than one in 10 professors are women.

"This is often because more emphasis is put on research than on teaching for promotion, and more women tend to go into teaching, because if they have families they cannot put in 14-hour days in the lab.

"We want to see research made easier for women, with more emphasis put on quality rather than quantity, and more weight to be given to teaching when it comes to promotion."

He said sometimes women were employed at a lower level in certain subjects for which it might be deemed "risky" to employ female academics.

Interview panels consisting entirely of men, and the use of the "old boys' network" were also factors, he said.

Guidelines

Natfhe has identified a number of measures it says university vice-chancellors can implement immediately to address the problem.

These include setting and monitoring targets for improving women's pay and the promotion of women.

The union also says universities should implement guidelines drawn up by the Commission on University Career Opportunity (Cuco).

Mr Wilson said that despite the fact Cuco was set up by the Committee of Vice-Chancellors and Principals, most universities were unaware of its guidelines.

These recommended that at least one woman should be on any appointments panel, that panel members be trained in recruitment, and that the numbers applying and being appointed to jobs be monitored.

Global market

The figures show that the London Business School pays the largest salaries to its academics, as well as having the biggest pay differential.

Faculty Dean, Professor Saul Estrin, said that men and women employed at the same level of seniority were paid the same salaries.

The average difference in pay was because the LBS had no female full professors.

"When we're trying to search globally, we're looking for women, although we can't have positive discrimination," Prof Estrin said.

"We are mindful of this situation when we have to recruit. Also, women are gradually working their way up, and we expect we will have women as full professors within a few years."

Salaries were higher than in other universities and colleges, because the LBS was an international business school which had to pay global market rates.

Professor Keith Robbins, vice-chancellor of the University of Wales, Lampeter, which has the sixth highest pay gap, said:"There is no suggestion that, grade for grade, women are in any way more poorly paid than men. We have a gender neutral position in relation to appointments.

"We happen to have a very considerable imbalance between men and women at professorial level."

The university had 13 male professors, and just one female professor, he said. It was an imbalance he would like to see addressed, but it was impossible to do so unless women applied for positions.

At the other end of the table, the university with the smallest difference between men and women's pay is the University of North London, where male academics receive on average just over £822 more than their female colleagues.

Vice-chancellor Brian Roper said the university had placed emphasis on equal opportunities for 15 years, and now wanted to remove the pay imbalance completely.

Full list
N denotes post-1992 institution (C is college, U is university), O denotes pre-1992 institution
  Institution     Male Female Gap
1 London Business School O   55,156 36,005 19,151
2 St George's Hospital Medical School O   38,736 22,572 16,164
3 University of Wales College of Medicine O   41,183 25,707 15,476
4 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine O   37,255 28,402 8,852
5 United Medical and Dental Schools, Guy's and St Thomas's Hospitals O   35,839 27,163 8,676
6 The University of Wales, Lampeter O   29,375 21,458 7,917
7 The University of Glasgow O   32,518 24,706 7,812
8 University College London O   33,635 25,950 7,685
9 The University of St Andrews O   29,188 21,547 7,641
10 Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine O   34,568 27,021 7,547
11 The University of Leicester O   30,242 22,936 7,306
12 The University of Edinburgh O   30,731 23,551 7,179
13 The University of Aberdeen O   28,787 21,739 7,049
14 The Royal Veterinary College O   32,139 25,181 6,958
15 Scottish Agricultural College N   28,255 21,376 6,879
16 University of Wales, Cardiff O   28,809 22,202 6,607
17 Aston University O   31,061 24,706 6,354
18 The University of Bristol O   30,439 24,090 6,349
19 The University of Birmingham O   30,285 23,948 6,336
20 University of London (Institutes & activities) O   32,147 25,842 6,304
21 Institute of Education, University of London O   35,736 29,439 6,297
22 King's College London O C 33,939 27,667 6,272
23 Wye College O   26,024 19,842 6,182
24 The University of Liverpool O   30,656 24,486 6,170
25 Heriot-Watt University O   28,069 21,899 6,170
26 London School of Economics and Political Science O   32,928 26,848 6,079
27 The University of Exeter O   29,721 23,655 6,066
28 The Victoria University of Manchester O   29,777 23,828 5,949
29 The University of Dundee O   30,345 24,430 5,915
30 The University of Strathclyde O   29,686 23,786 5,901
31 The University of Nottingham O   29,350 23,462 5,888
32 Writtle College N C 25,732 19,863 5,870
33 Cranfield University O   31,921 26,057 5,865
34 The School of Pharmacy, University of London O   31,370 25,546 5,824
35 The University of Sheffield O   29,994 24,181 5,813
36 The University of Leeds O   29,902 24,112 5,790
37 The University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne O   29,892 24,317 5,576
38 The Queen's University of Belfast O   30,318 24,910 5,408
39 The University of Reading O   28,033 22,642 5,391
40 Falmouth College of Arts N C 24,670 19,413 5,257
41 University of Wales, Aberystwyth O   26,138 20,933 5,205
42 University of Ulster O   29,395 24,240 5,155
43 London Guildhall University N U 29,669 24,637 5,032
44 The University of Warwick O   28,720 23,743 4,977
45 Imperial College of Science,Technology & Medicine O   28,766 23,808 4,958
46 Coventry University N U 26,284 21,335 4,949
47 The School of Oriental and African Studies O   33,604 28,725 4,879
48 The University of Manchester Institute of Science & Technology O   27,768 22,922 4,845
49 The University of Cambridge O   26,798 21,959 4,838
50 The University of Bath O   28,032 23,223 4,809
51 The University of East Anglia O   28,620 23,823 4,798
52 The University of Southampton O   28,533 23,809 4,724
53 Loughborough University O   28,486 23,785 4,700
54 Registry, The University of Wales O   22,376 17,697 4,679
55 Newman College N C 29,967 25,295 4,672
56 The Nottingham Trent University N U 28,952 24,294 4,658
57 University of Wales, Swansea O   28,763 24,231 4,532
58 Kent Institute of Art & Design N C 28,318 23,858 4,460
59 The University of Kent at Canterbury O   29,105 24,663 4,443
60 Royal Holloway and Bedford New College O   30,734 26,312 4,422
61 University of Abertay Dundee N   26,346 21,946 4,400
62 The University of Greenwich N U 31,783 27,489 4,295
63 The University of Lancaster O   28,917 24,627 4,290
64 The University of Plymouth N U 27,220 22,936 4,284
65 University of Durham O   28,242 24,141 4,100
66 Goldsmiths College O   32,102 28,043 4,059
67 The University of Essex O   29,304 25,263 4,041
68 The University of Oxford O   26,228 22,209 4,019
69 Royal Northern College of Music N C 30,387 26,399 3,988
70 Queen Mary and Westfield College O   32,698 28,712 3,986
71 Glasgow Caledonian University N   29,668 25,722 3,945
72 University College of North Wales, Bangor O   27,504 23,565 3,939
73 The University of Hull O   30,628 26,735 3,893
74 Kingston University N U 30,044 26,158 3,886
75 Dartington College of Arts N C 27,355 23,493 3,862
76 Harper Adams Agricultural College N C 25,982 22,131 3,851
77 The University of York O   27,907 24,073 3,834
78 The University of Lincolnshire and Humberside N U 28,123 24,429 3,695
79 College of St Mark and St John N C 28,563 25,051 3,511
80 St Andrew's College of Education N   31,373 27,927 3,446
81 The University of Sussex O   28,438 25,012 3,426
82 Bolton Institute of Higher Education N C 27,296 24,056 3,240
83 The University of Keele O   28,804 25,614 3,189
84 University College Bretton Hall N C 27,018 23,936 3,082
85 Middlesex University N U 30,119 27,056 3,063
86 Trinity College, Carmarthen N C 26,202 23,220 2,981
87 City University O   32,508 29,527 2,981
88 The University of Portsmouth N U 27,600 24,626 2,974
89 Liverpool John Moores University N U 27,971 25,023 2,948
90 The University of Surrey O   28,370 25,514 2,856
91 The Open University O   31,711 28,860 2,850
92 Queen Margaret College N   29,585 26,737 2,848
93 The University of East London N U 28,626 25,827 2,800
94 The University of Wolverhampton N U 27,128 24,329 2,798
95 Institute of Advanced Nursing Education O   37,524 34,726 2,798
96 Southampton Institute N C 27,123 24,358 2,765
97 The University of Paisley N   28,546 25,845 2,701
98 Napier University N   24,368 21,696 2,671
99 The University of Salford O   30,685 28,043 2,642
100 Anglia Polytechnic University N U 29,981 27,367 2,614
101 The University of Central Lancashire N U 27,945 25,364 2,581
102 Cumbria College of Art and Design N C 25,925 23,438 2,487
103 University of Luton N U 25,666 23,186 2,481
104 The University of Central England in Birmingham N U 29,723 27,261 2,462
105 The University of Bradford O   28,644 26,184 2,460
106 St Martin's College N C 29,648 27,202 2,446
107 The North-East Wales Institute of Higher Education N C 29,906 27,471 2,434
108 South Bank University N U 29,313 26,889 2,424
109 The University of Sunderland N U 27,309 24,931 2,378
110 Staffordshire University N U 26,940 24,567 2,373
111 Sheffield Hallam University N U 27,738 25,450 2,288
112 De Montfort University N U 27,440 25,172 2,267
113 Surrey Institute of Art and Design N C 28,475 26,215 2,259
114 The University of Northumbria at Newcastle N U 27,586 25,360 2,227
115 Central School of Speech and Drama N C 24,495 22,333 2,161
116 The Manchester Metropolitan University N U 26,843 24,722 2,121
117 Royal College of Art N C 36,782 34,681 2,101
118 Westminster College N C 25,278 23,192 2,085
119 Leeds Metropolitan University N U 28,504 26,444 2,060
120 Rose Bruford College N C 27,192 25,179 2,013
121 Brunel University O N 29,560 27,581 1,979
122 The University of Huddersfield N U 27,775 25,798 1,977
123 Birkbeck College O   29,646 27,687 1,958
124 The Robert Gordon University N   27,057 25,152 1,905
125 University College Worcester N C 29,110 27,215 1,894
126 University of Glamorgan N U 27,168 25,301 1,868
127 The Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama N   29,171 27,341 1,830
128 The University of Brighton N U 28,885 27,079 1,806
129 The Scottish College of Textiles N   26,769 24,979 1,790
130 Buckinghamshire Chilterns University College N C 27,444 25,667 1,777
131 Bournemouth University N U 28,158 26,414 1,744
132 Oxford Brookes University N U 30,845 29,163 1,682
133 Canterbury Christ Church College N C 28,253 26,627 1,626
134 Cheltenham and Gloucester College of HE N C 27,580 25,957 1,623
135 The University of Westminster N U 27,718 26,097 1,620
136 University College Chester N C 27,041 25,425 1,615
137 Homerton College N C 28,772 27,205 1,567
138 University of the West of England, Bristol N U 28,519 26,961 1,558
139 The University of Teesside N U 26,875 25,328 1,547
140 Welsh College of Music and Drama N C 26,482 25,048 1,434
141 Swansea Institute of Higher Education N C 27,465 26,094 1,371
142 University of Derby O   27,000 25,636 1,363
143 University of Wales Institute, Cardiff N C 26,011 24,674 1,336
144 University College Scarborough - North Riding College N C 23,352 22,033 1,318
145 Chichester Institute of Higher Education N C 27,488 26,180 1,308
146 The London Institute N C 29,672 28,421 1,251
147 University of Wales College, Newport N C 29,037 27,793 1,244
148 Westhill College N C 27,113 25,916 1,197
149 Bishop Grosseteste College N C 30,204 29,011 1,193
150 Northern College of Education N   31,419 30,236 1,184
151 Trinity and All Saints College N C 28,592 27,442 1,151
152 Loughborough College of Art and Design N C 28,054 26,919 1,135
153 St Mary's College N C 27,718 26,698 1,020
154 Roehampton Institute of HE N C 29,754 28,757 997
155 Thames Valley University N U 30,726 29,747 979
156 University of Hertfordshire N U 28,284 27,382 902
157 Liverpool Hope University College N C 26,282 25,415 867
158 The University of North London N U 29,971 29,149 822
159 Bath Spa University College N C 27,089 26,316 773
160 The College of Ripon and York St John N C 27,098 26,431 667
161 University College Northampton N C 26,417 25,791 627
162 Moray House Institute of Education N   30,377 29,820 557
163 Edinburgh College of Art N   29,839 29,324 514
164 Edge Hill College of Higher Education N C 27,347 26,878 469
165 King Alfred's College, Winchester N C 26,605 26,760 -154
166 Glasgow School of Art N   28,466 29,241 -775
167 The University of Stirling O   N/A N/A  
             
Source: Higher Education Statistics Agency 1999




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