The lorries parked on the eastbound A40 closing the carriageway between the northern roundabout A3220 junction and Paddington from 1000 BST until 1600 BST.
Some drivers also joined a rally in central London before petitioning 10 Downing Street. Mr Carroll said hauliers were being "murdered" by rising costs, and the public's response to their plight had been "enormously positive".
"We feel we couldn't have put on a better or bigger display to show the government this is a real crisis," he said.
"The acid test will now be whether they listen to us."
In Wales, police said about 100 lorries took part in a 60-mile convoy protest from Cross Hands, near Llanelli. Other reports put the figure at about 170.
Convoys have blocked the A40 and disrupted traffic on the M4
They had planned to hand in a petition to the Welsh assembly at the Senedd in Cardiff Bay, but police turned back many vehicles and diverted others to a service station west of the city.
Martin Arthur, who owns a haulage firm in Usk, Monmouthshire, said: "We have to make ourselves heard or people will keep walking all over us.
"People will have to stop working sooner or later because there's no point working for a loss."
Commons Transport Committee chairwoman Louise Ellman said ministers should acknowledge widespread concerns over soaring fuel costs but not be forced into policy decisions by protests.
"Everybody is feeling the impact of the increased cost of living," she said. "That's something the government will have to think about."
Trucks from Cowbit, Lincolnshire head to A40 in London via M1, A406 and Hanger Lane Gyratory
Trucks from M2 Medway Services, Kent head to A40 in London via Vauxhall Bridge, Grosvenor Road, Chelsea Embankment, Finborough Road, Warwick Road, Holland Road and West Cross Route (A3220)
Coaches take drivers from parking on A40 to 1130 BST Marble Arch rally
All vehicles supposed to leave A40 by 1530 BST
A Treasury spokesman said the government understood businesses and families were "feeling the pressure from high fuel prices".
But they said the "immediate priority" was to encourage oil-producing countries to increase output, that a 2p-per-litre fuel duty increase had been put back from April to October and fuel duty was "still 11% below its 1999 level in real terms".
The Treasury also defended its plan to increase vehicle excise duty for vehicles registered since 2001 that emit higher levels of pollutants.
Owners of the most polluting cars could face a rise of as much as £200, but a spokesman said the policy was needed to "strengthen the environmental incentive to develop and purchase fuel-efficient cars".
Business Secretary John Hutton told the BBC the chancellor was "listening to what people are saying about vehicle excise duty".
He also said the government wanted UK hauliers to have "a fair deal" and the chancellor would have "to consider how he wants to go forward on this".
Justice Secretary Jack Straw told the BBC he "fully understood" the hauliers' concerns, but "government revenues have to come from somewhere".
He said any decisions made about increased road tax would be made in the autumn statement.
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