The registered owner of the vehicle would be made responsible
New regulations have been drawn up to make sure people who throw litter out of car windows are fined.
Local authorities in England and Wales often find it difficult to prove that a particular individual was to blame.
The Local Government Association wants a new system where the vehicle owner would face a penalty of up to £80 if the culprit cannot be identified.
If a pilot scheme in London from June is a success, it could be extended by environment minister Joan Ruddock.
'Horrified and angry'
Paul Bettison, chairman of the LGA's environmental board, said: "What we would like is, if evidence was found that litter was thrown from the car then the owner of the car would receive a penalty charge notice.
"Then it's up to the owner of the car, if he says 'actually, I wasn't driving the car somebody else was', he has to give that person's name.
"In which case, they're responsible. Failing which, the owner would have to pay the fine."
Ms Ruddock told The Times she was "always horrified and angry" when she saw people throwing rubbish from vehicles.
"There is no excuse for littering, particularly from cars, as people can save rubbish inside their car and dispose of it at home," she said.