Buckingham Palace has revealed 60 facts to mark the diamond wedding anniversary of the Queen and Duke of Edinburgh.
1.The Queen is the first British monarch to have celebrated a diamond wedding anniversary.
2. Princess Elizabeth and Philip first met when they attended the wedding of Philip's cousin, Princess Marina of Greece to The Duke of Kent,
who was an uncle of Princess Elizabeth, in 1934.
3. The engagement between Princess Elizabeth and Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten RN was announced on the 9 July 1947. Philip was born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark. He joined the Royal Navy in 1939 and after the war, in February 1947, became a naturalised British subject. Philip was required to choose a surname in order to continue his career in the Royal Navy, and adopted Mountbatten, the name of his mother's British relatives. He was created Duke of Edinburgh by King George VI on marriage.
4. The platinum and diamond engagement ring was made by the jewellers, Philip Antrobus, using diamonds from a tiara belonging to Philip's mother.
5. Philip had two stag parties the night before the wedding - the first at the Dorchester to which the press were invited and the second with his closest friends at the Belfry Club.
The couple were married after a four-month engagement
6. The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh were married in Westminster Abbey on 20 November, 1947 at 1130GMT with 2,000 invited guests.
7. It was the first, and so far only time in British history, that the heir presumptive to the throne had been married.
8. The Queen was the 10th member of the Royal Family to be married in the Abbey. The first Royal wedding to take place in the Abbey was when King Henry I married Princess Matilda of Scotland on 11 November, 1100. On 26 April, 1923, the Queen's parents King George VI and Queen Elizabeth (then the Duke and Duchess of York) were married there.
9. The eight bridesmaids were: HRH The Princess Margaret, HRH Princess Alexandra of Kent, Lady Caroline Montagu-Douglas-Scott, Lady Mary Cambridge, Lady Elizabeth Lambart, The Hon. Pamela Mountbatten, The Hon. Margaret Elphinstone, The Hon. Diana Bowes-Lyon.
10. There were two pages: HRH Prince William of Gloucester and HRH Prince Michael of Kent, both aged just five.
11. Guests attending the wedding included the King and Queen of Denmark, the King and Queen of Yugoslavia, the Kings of Norway, Romania and the Shah of Iran.
12.The Queen's wedding dress was designed by Sir Norman Hartnell, who had submitted designs for the dress in August 1947.
Princess Elizabeth wore satin shoes trimmed with silver and seed pearl
13. The fabric for the dress was woven at Winterthur Silks Limited, Dunfermline, in the Canmore factory, using silk that had come from Chinese silkworms at Lullingstone Castle.
14. The Queen's bridal veil was made of tulle and held by a tiara of diamonds. This tiara was made for Queen Mary in 1919. It was made from re-used diamonds taken from a necklace/tiara purchased by Queen Victoria from Collingwood and Co and a wedding present for Queen Mary in 1893. In August 1936, Queen Mary gave the tiara to Queen Elizabeth from whom it was borrowed by Princess Elizabeth for her wedding in 1947.
15. After the wedding, the dress was exhibited at St James's Palace and was then shown in the capital towns of the British Isles and in Glasgow, Liverpool, Bristol, Preston, Leicester, Nottingham, Manchester, Bradford, Leeds and Huddersfield.
16. The bride's wedding bouquet was supplied by the Worshipful Company of Gardeners and made by the florist MH Longman. It was of white orchids with a sprig of myrtle from the bush grown from the original myrtle in Queen Victoria's wedding bouquet. An identical copy of the bouquet was made and presented to The Queen on her Golden Wedding in 1997.
17. The grave of the Unknown Warrior was the only stone that was not covered by the special carpet in the Abbey. The day after the wedding, Princess Elizabeth followed a Royal tradition started by her mother, of sending her wedding bouquet back to the Abbey to be laid on this grave.
18. The bridesmaids wore wreaths in their hair of miniature white sheaves, Lilies and London Pride, modelled in white satin and silver lame. They were made by Jac Ltd of London. The pages wore Royal Stewart tartan kilts.
19. The bridesmaids' bouquets, prepared by Moyses Stevens, were of white orchids, lilies of the valley, gardenias, white bouvardia, white roses and white nerine.
20. The bells of St Margaret's Church, Westminster Abbey, hailed the arrival of the carriage procession. The Queen arrived at the Abbey with her father, George VI, in the Irish State Coach.
The Queen was married in Westminster Abbey
21. Other music at the wedding included: Psalm 67 (God be merciful unto us and bless us) sung to a setting by EC Bairstow; the motet We Wait For Thy Loving Kindness, O God, by Dr William McKie, organist and master of the choristers of the Abbey; the hymn The Lord's My Shepherd (to the then relatively unknown Scottish tune Crimond); the anthem Blessed Be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, by SS Wesley was sung by the Abbey choir and members of the choirs of the Chapel Royal and St George's Chapel Windsor; and after signing the register in St Edward's Chapel, the procession made its way out of the Abbey to Mendelssohn's Wedding March.
22. There were 91 singers at the wedding, made up from the Abbey Choir, the Choir of HM Chapels Royal and additional tenors and basses. They sat in the organ loft as the choir stalls were occupied by various dignitaries.
23. William McKie, the Abbey organist, had been summoned to the Palace four days before the wedding so that Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret could sing the descant to Crimond to him so that he could note it down as no other copy was available.
24. The two Royal kneelers, used during the service, were covered in rose pink silk. They were made from orange boxes, due to war time austerity, and date stamped 1946.
The number of signatures on the marriage register ran into two pages
25. The altar was hung with the white dorsal given in 1911 by King George V and Queen Mary for their coronation and the 1937 coronation frontal given by the Princess' parents. The Abbey plate was displayed on the altar.
26. The bride's wedding ring was made from a nugget of Welsh gold which came from the Clogau St David's mine, near Dolgellau.
27. As not all the people to sign the register could fit into St Edward's Chapel, only the bride and groom, the King and Queen, Queen Mary and Princess Andrew of Greece (the groom's mother), the Archbishop, and the Dean of Westminster signed it at this point. The rest of the signatures were added later at Buckingham Palace. They included: Princess Margaret, Prince George of Greece (the groom's uncle), Henry (Duke of Gloucester), Alice (Duchess of Gloucester), Princess Marina (Duchess of Kent), Lady Patricia Ramsay, Alexander Ramsay, Alice Mary (Countess of Athlone), Earl of Athlone, Victoria Milford Haven, Nada Milford Haven, Edwina Mountbatten of Burma, Earl Mountbatten of Burma, King Haakon (of Norway), King Michael (of Romania), Queen Ingrid (of Denmark), King Frederick (of Denmark).
28. Trumpet fanfares were introduced for the first time at a Royal wedding in the Abbey. A white flag was waved in the organ loft to signal the fanfare once the register had been signed.
29. The position of the BBC microphones had to be carefully checked as at the 1934 Royal wedding, the Abbey cross had hit the microphone suspended above the altar steps. Radio commentators shared the organ loft with the choir.
30. Thousands of people lined the processional route and were able to file through the Abbey after the service. Millions listened to the live radio broadcast.
31. The film of the wedding was watched by many thousands of people at cinemas across the country.
32. About 10,000 telegrams of congratulations were received at Buckingham Palace.
33. The Royal couple received over 2,500 wedding presents from well-wishers around the world. Most were put on display for a few days in a charity exhibition at St James's Palace. From India, there was a piece of crocheted, cotton lace made from yarn personally spun by Mahatma Gandhi. The central motif reads "Jai Hind" (Victory for India).
The couple received a pair of Meissen chocolate pots from Pope Pius XII
34. Other gifts from abroad included a gold and jade necklace given by King Farouk of Egypt, a writing desk from the Government of New Zealand and pieces from a Chinese porcelain dinner service printed with characters denoting "double joy" given by President Chiang Kai Shek of the Chinese Republic.
35. As well as jewellery from their close relatives, including the King and Queen, the couple received many useful items for the kitchen and home, including salt cellars from the Queen, a bookcase from Queen Mary, and a picnic case from Princess Margaret.
36. Other gifts, kindly made and given by members of the public, included a hand-knitted cardigan, two pairs of bed socks, and a hand-knitted tea cosy.
37. Over 200,000 people visited the special exhibition of wedding presents at St James's Palace.
THE WEDDING RECEPTION
38. The "wedding breakfast" was held after the marriage ceremony at Westminster Abbey in the Ball Supper-room at Buckingham Palace. The menu was Filet de Sole Mountbatten, Perdreau en Casserole, Bombe Glacee Princess Elizabeth.
The wedding reception was held at Buckingham Palace
39. The bride and groom sat at the main table with the bride's parents, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, the bride's grandmother, Queen Mary, her sister Princess Margaret, the groom's mother, Princess Andrew of Greece, the groom's uncle, Prince George of Greece and the Kings of Norway, Denmark and Romania.
40. Individual posies of myrtle and white Balmoral heather were placed at each place setting as "favours" (gifts to the guests).
41. The flowers decorating the tables were pink and white carnations, donated by the British Carnation Society.
42. The string band of the Grenadier Guards played music during the "wedding breakfast" under the direction of Captain FJ Harris. The King's Pipe Major also played at the lunch.
43. The official wedding cake was made by McVities and Price. Eleven other cakes were given as presents. With post-war food rationing still in place ingredients were sent as wedding presents from overseas, for example the official cake was made using ingredients given as a wedding gift by Australian Girl Guides. Pieces of cake and food parcels were later distributed to schoolchildren and institutions.
44. The cake was nine feet high in four tiers, with painted panels of the armorial bearings of both families, and included the monograms of bride and groom, sugar-iced figures to depict their favourite activities, and regimental and naval badges. The cake was cut using the Duke's Mountbatten sword, which was a wedding present from the King.
45. United Biscuits, which now owns the former McVities and Price brand, will be making two cakes to mark the diamond wedding anniversary in 2007. The first of the cakes will be on display at the lunch for members of various Royal Families at Buckingham Palace after the Service of Thanksgiving at Westminster Abbey on the 19 November. The second cake will be distributed to members of staff.
The Queen and Prince Philip spent some of their honeymoon in Malta
46. The bride and bridegroom left the Palace showered with rose petals. For the Princess' going-away outfit, Hartnell designed an ensemble of a dress and matching coat in mist-blue with mushroom-coloured accessories.
47. The couple departed from Waterloo station with the Princess's corgi, Susan, for their honeymoon.
48. The newlyweds spent their wedding night at Broadlands in Hampshire, home of Prince Philip's uncle Earl Mountbatten. The second part of the honeymoon was spent at Birkhall on the Balmoral Estate.
49. Early in 1948 the couple leased their first marital home, Windlesham Moor, in Surrey, near Windsor Castle, where they stayed until they moved to Clarence House on 4 July 1949.
Prince Philip was not crowned or anointed at the Queen's coronation
50. After marrying Princess Elizabeth, the Duke of Edinburgh continued his naval career, reaching the rank of Lieutenant-Commander in command of the frigate HMS Magpie.
51. Although he was the Queen's husband, the Duke of Edinburgh was not crowned or anointed at the Coronation ceremony in 1953. He was the first subject to pay Homage to Her Majesty, and kiss the newly crowned Queen by stating "I, Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, do become your liege man of life and limb, and of earthly worship; and faith and truth I will bear unto you, to live and die, against all manner of folks. So help me God."
52. Prince Philip has accompanied the Queen on all her Commonwealth tours and State visits, as well as on public engagements in all parts of the UK. The first of these was the Coronation tour of the Commonwealth from November 1953 to May 1954, when the couple visited Bermuda, Jamaica, Panama, Fiji, Tonga, New Zealand, Australia, Cocos Islands, Ceylon, Aden, Uganda, Libya, Malta and Gibraltar, travelling a distance of 43,618 miles.
53. The Duke of Edinburgh is only one of a few consorts to reigning female Queens in British history. William III was co-Sovereign with Mary II, although she, as daughter of James II, was nearer the throne than him. The husband of Queen Anne was not given the title of King, but remained Prince George of Denmark. Prince Albert was created Prince Consort by Queen Victoria in 1857.
The Royal couple had four children
54. The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh have four children: Prince Charles, The Prince of Wales (b. 1948), Princess Anne, The Princess Royal (b. 1950), Prince Andrew, The Duke of York (b. 1960), and Prince Edward, The Earl of Wessex (b. 1964).
55. With the birth of Prince Andrew in 1960, the Queen became the first reigning Sovereign to give birth to a child since Queen Victoria, whose youngest child, Princess Beatrice, was born in 1857.
56. The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh have seven grandchildren - Peter Phillips (b. 1977), Zara Phillips (b. 1981) Prince William (b. 1982), Prince Harry (b. 1984), Princess Beatrice (b. 1988), Princess Eugenie (b. 1990), and Lady Louise Windsor (b. 2003). The Earl and Countess of Wessex are expecting their second child in December.
57. The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh celebrated their 6th wedding anniversary in the year of the coronation, with a dance at Clarence House given by Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother. They left on their Commonwealth tour three days later.
58. A service of thanksgiving was held in Westminster Abbey for both the Silver and Golden wedding anniversaries.
59. There will be a service of thanksgiving in Westminster Abbey on the 19 November 2007 to celebrate the Diamond Wedding Anniversary. On the 20 November, the day of their wedding anniversary, the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh will travel to Malta where they lived as a young married couple from 1949-51 while the Duke was stationed there as a serving Royal Naval officer.
60. Five choristers who sang at the 1947 Wedding Service in Westminster Abbey will be serving at the Service of Thanksgiving on the 19 November, 2007 in Westminster Abbey.