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Thursday, 19 July, 2001, 09:51 GMT 10:51 UK
What can the Agra summit achieve?
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General Pervez Musharraf is the first Pakistani head of government in 14 years to go to India for a summit meeting.
Ever since the partition of the sub-continent, the two countries have been arch rivals, and their animosity has escalated into a dangerous arms race. Both countries have nuclear weapons.
One of the most contentious issues between the two is the region of Kashmir, which is disputed by both countries.
President Musharraf and Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee have extended their summit, which began on Saturday, and are hoping to find common ground after their differences over Kashmir became apparent.
But can the two governments break free from decades of mutual suspicion and mistrust? Can there be a compromise on Kashmir?
Robin Lustig was joined by David Taylor from the School of Oriental and African Studies at London University in a Talking Point phone-in programme.
This debate is now closed. Read a selection of your comments below.
The governments of India and Pakistan have pursued the issue of Kashmir with such flavour of extreme nationalism for the last 54 years, that it is now very difficult for any government to make compromises on this issue. Any concession made by either government would lead to major public oppositions within its own people especially considering the heavy price both countries have paid in terms of civilian and military losses.
But both leaderships should realise the cost involved in fuelling such false nationalism and extending the dispute for indefinite time.
India has a moral duty to provide Kashimiris the right to self-determination. But it is the moral duty of both the countries to prevent fundamentalists from creating another Afghanistan in present Kashmir.
Pakistan's and some Kashmiris' case is based on narrow concept - religion - while India's on broader, healthier and probably the correct perspective, i.e. unity in diversity - religion & race - shared history and common culture and heritage. While religion, ethnic roots or ideology never have been a binding factor or prevented wars and partitions as seen in case of Pakistan & Bangladesh, Yugoslavian states, Soviet Russia, economic reasons have proven as more compelling reasons & binding force to forge & keep together relationship as evident from European Union or other such progressive national groupings sure to follow in future.
N J Albert, Cochin, India
As long as there are fanatics on both sides, there is little hope. India needs to tone down the extremist Hindu leaders while Pakistan should work towards cutting back the Islamic fundamentalist movements, which is not going to happen.
If you look at a map of the region there is India in the middle with aggressive Pakistan on one side and China on the other. India will never give up Kashmir since physically and psychologically having Pakistan looking down on them from "above" would never be acceptable.
All our hopes are with the two leaders discussing peace for the two countries. I hope the summit is a success and there is a stop to all this bloodshed of innocent people. The people of Kashmir have suffered enough due to the terrorist activities and peace must be resumed. Our prayers are with them.
The only foreign policy that Pakistan has is Kashmir and terrorism in India. If Pakistan resolves this then there would be no policy left. They should concentrate more on its own domestic issues like unemployment and poverty than to prey on Indian issues. Kashmir is an integral part of India and Pakistan should return back to India what they took from them by treachery and that's the POK.
Shahid Anwar, T.T.Singh,Pakistan
Suffering in the past 52 years is a gift given by British rulers to Indopak in the shape of Kashmir. After half the century we should understand we achieved what...? It is time of our leaders come out from their egos, think of the more than a billion poor people who cannot afford to have basic facilities of life like food clean water housing medical etc. Our leaders of both sides should avail this chance and decide Kashmir issue with the will of Kashmiris and work for the poor people.
I was really surprised after hearing Manhotra's comment on Star News. He just wanted to talk about Siachen where lot of money is spent. He is really not bothered about the lives of Kashmiris, where daily number of peoples and children are killed. I was upset with the stubborn attitude of Manhotra. Kashmir is the main issue and it will remain forever until it is solved. I want to ask the BJP government why are they not trying to solve the core issue?
The present political situation in the sub-continent is not very encouraging. I believe that the present talks between the two head of states wont achieve anything. The conflict between the two countries has a long history and the matter cannot be solved within a few days. In retrospect when we look at the history we will come to the conclusion that such talks don't achieve the purpose. I also sincerely believe that the fate of Kashmir should be decided by the Kashmiris, rather than the Pakistanis or Indians.
Krish, Dubai, UAE
Well, it is to be hoped that peace can first be established through dialog, as the benefits will chiefly be economic and will improve people's quality of life. However, as for reunification, that would be great if both sides want it, but what a monster of a cricket team would result? Poor England, they would have even less chance on the sub continent.
I am from Kashmir and have relatives not only in both parts of Kashmir but also in India and Pakistan. Why do I need to have to apply for visas to visit my relatives for family reunions? Most people in India, Pak and Bangladesh prefer a Unified Indian Federation. Kashmiri, USA
It is apparent in this forum that the majority of participants are positive about the summit. Add to that the heart-warming scene of seeing Vajpayee and Musharraf shaking hands on Indian soil, sitting and talking together, and even smiling at each other. We should all understand, just as I have during these last three days, that the purpose of this summit is not to solve 54 years of hatred, or even to become best friends. It is to open communication with each other, give hope to the people of India and Pakistan that their neighbours aren't devils, and that maybe, just maybe, something good might come out of these talks, and hopefully more to come, that would lead Indians and Pakistanis to finally realise that they gain nothing by hating each other. And if nothing else, at least let the gentlemen start playing cricket together!
India did not and will not accept any deal on Kashmir, because of other separatist movements in its certain states. I don't think there will be any breakthrough out of this summit especially on Kashmir.
Philip Mahoney, Ankara, Turkey
I agree with Sameen Khan from Pakistan, perhaps a UN-sponsored referendum is the best idea for Kashmir. I think that Kashmir should belong to Pakistan because most of the residents of that area are Muslim. It doesn't matter what the leaders say, it matters what the people themselves want.
Both countries were formed due to the separatist policies of the British. Let us hope that the leaders talk of uniting India and Pakistan. That would be wonderful. Most of the world order is changing. Germany has united; North and South Korea are talking of reunification. Why can't we?
Roop Misir, Toronto, Canada
The leaders of both countries have got to understand the fact that instead of wasting people's money on wars, they should instead spendthe money on technological advances and save the brain drain to super-powers.
India and Pakistan uniting is a good idea. Before this happens, they need to be able to talk to each other as normal neighbours.
Mani, San Jose, USA
Let the Kashmiris decide their fate whether they want to stay with Pakistan, India or be independent.Any solution not acceptable to Kashmiris will not mean anything.
There can be no trust until India
agrees to hold a referendum in
Kashmir in accordance with the
UNO resolution. One must not
forget that Mr Nehru accepted
and promised to hold this
R. Subramonian, Thiruvananthapuram, India
That the two countries are talking is a great stride towards permanent peace in the subcontinent. It is better to have a protracted talking spree than a 'two-day' war that will cost irreparable losses. I wish the two leaders a huge success.
It's difficult but it's not impossible. We have to be optimistic about the current summit. At least both countries are trying their level best, we should support them rather be critical of their efforts.
Sarit Arora, Mumbai, India
I fully agree with Mr Srinivas Reddy, that the sooner the better for both countries to start talking of merging into a single entity like Germany. The theory of religious basis of partition has done no good to both sides of the border.
Pakistan should focus on other issues like terrorism and drug trafficking rather than eyeing at Kashmir which is a part of India. Also Pakistan must respect the agreements and act accordingly not to instigate war against India.
Rajat Bhatia, New Delhi, India
People of Pakistan and India have to realise the advantages of peace and force their leaders to achieve this.
I don't think that this summit will result in any substantial result. The summit can be judged as fruitful even if both the parties agree to continue the process of negotiations. The 54 year dispute of Kashmir cannot be solved in 54hours.
Where there is a will, there is a way. If India and Pakistan sincerely want to solve the Kashmir issue, the Agra summit will stand testimony to their efforts.
Albert Devakaram, Chennai, India
The decision by President Musharraf is in good direction but I don't think there will be much progress. Time and time again the leaders from both countries have come together and the outcome was not constructive. I have been to many countries and people from both India and Pakistan do not have any problem in living together. We are only looking things from India's and Pakistan's point of view, what about the other people involve in Kashmir? Both leaders have very big duty toward people of Kashmir and we all will have to wait and see what they will be doing gain confidence of the world community.
Let us all hope for peace. This is the closest that both India and Pakistan can get and let's pray that the opportunity is not wasted. Restoration of peace will enable the energy to be utilised for the development of both the nations. We were once a one nation and that for thousands of years. Maybe becoming a one nation is highly improbable, but becoming friends and good neighbours is very much possible.
Our expectations from the summit are unrealistically high simply because the stated positions of the two adversaries are poles apart. Each of them has refused to budge or even compromise. We can only hope that this meeting will make them aware of the futility of warring with each other and ultimately lead towards the goal of peaceful coexistence, whatever it takes to achieve it.
Anil S. Karkera, Los Angeles, CA
The Kashmir problem was a side-effect of the partition of India into India and Pakistan. Partition is the real problem that needs to be solved. Trying to solve Kashmir is like "a doctor giving medicine for a headache to a patient who actually have a eye-sight problem".
The leaders of both countries have a golden opportunity to show the rest of us how to solve so called intractable problems, ie Northern Ireland and Israel/Palestine. As a Christian I pray that the two great countries India and Pakistan find a way to live in peace.
I am in complete agreement with Iqbal of Mumbai. People of both countries have to change their mindset.
For this, political and religious leaders of both countries should desist from issuing rhetorical
For success, both parties have to mmake concessions. Pakistan's existence is founded on continuing animosity and rivalry with India and no Pakistani leader can hope to survive by making any concessions to India.
For the Indians, it remains an issue of submitting to terrorist tactics which will not happen.
I believe that trade does not figure on the agenda which means that the future of Indo-Pak relations will be defined by Kashmir which in all probability will continue to be settled by guns and bombs, and the continuong spectre of war.
Armed forces on both sides won't like a solution to the Kashmir issue. An example is the year 1999 conflict in Kargil, which helped theIndian Army gain an increase of 28% in defence budget, while on the other side Pakistan Army took the control of whole country.
With the Kashmir soultion resolved, how would the big army generals on both sides earn their livings
Let the Kashmiris go to the polls for a referendum on their future, under United Nations supervision. The same happened in East Timor recently.
The summit is the first step towards peace in South Asia.The sight of Musharraf and Vajpayee shaking hands is heart-warming.
Both the countries have to show flexibility while discussing Kashmir.
It is time for peace now. It is time the doves overtook the hawks.
Since Pakistan insists on making the Kashmir issue the core of the talks, nothing substantial should come out of it. For a Kashmir peace process to work, there needs to be a unilateral ceasefire in the region for a period of time before talks can take place.
I wish both the leaders success and wisdom so that they can lead their nations towards the road to progress and prosperity which is long awaited. Amen.
At least both leaders try to come to peace settlement on Kashmir - this is most welcome.
It will be impossible for the Indian and Pakistani Governments to liberate themselves from mutual mistrust and suspicion, nurtured over several decades, at a single sitting in Agra. If there is give and take by either nation at the outset on any single issue, big or small, the other will spontaneously reciprocate the gesture. For instance if Pakistan is able to assure India that it will take sincere steps to put an end to cross-border terrorism - India's core concern - India on her part will be prepared to discuss the Kashmir issue - Pakistan's pet theme. However, General Musharraf must understand that Kashmir will always remain an integral part of India and any solution to it must recognise this simple truth.
Manjari C, Bangalore, India
From a Pakistani perspective the main reason for mutual suspicion is Kashmir. The right of self determination for the Kashmiris has been recognised by the United Nations in a declaration. Both Pakistan and India have to give up their tough stance in the interest of the Kashmiris. The solution is geographically simple. Pakistan keeps the part of Kashmir that it already has and India takes the predominantly Hindu part, Jamoon. The beautiful valley of Kashmir in the middle should be a neutral independent state. I think this solution would be agreeable to all, as everybody gets something.
While I am very glad that the two leaders are meeting and would like to be positive about the result, I cannot help but be sceptical about whether it will be a successful meeting or not. My first instinct is to say no, it's impossible. Generations of hatred and mistrust cannot be removed in 2 days. Then the other side of me says yes, maybe there is God who might have mercy on us and grace us with nothing short of a miracle. I say this as an Indian, but I'm sure many Pakistanis would agree with me - especially if I said it in Urdu.
As it appears, peace is not in sight. The problem of Kashmir is not going to be solved as the Indian foreign minister has said that Kashmir is "non-negotiable". Ok, so why meet and waste tea?
I think both India and Pakistan must first recognise the root cause of the conflict: that the British sought to divide the two nations on the basis of religion. Pakistan, India and Kashmir are the sorry victims of the effects of divide and rule tactics employed by the ex-colonial powers. It's sad that both sides didn't have the strategic insight to expunge the British before. It's sadder still to see that both sides still don't possess the intelligence to recognise that cooperation (in trade, information, technology and, yes, even military) is in their own interests. Pakistan especially needs to focus more on its internal growth strategy rather than think of scoring against India. Pakistan ought to free itself from the throngs of Mullahism and India of its jingoism.
It is all hogwash designed to make Musharraf look smart in the eyes of the international community. The Pakistan army has always operated on these lines, creating border tension with India to make democratic governments look bad and justify their own existence. When an army ruler is in place there is always an attempt to ease tensions at the border, as the home front heats up with opposition from democratic forces. As long as the army is powerful in Pakistan there will be no peace with India. The invented and imagined threat of India is the only justification for Pakistan's massive defence budget.
I live in Dubai where both Indians and Pakistanis are working together. Believe me these are political people who are not interested in solving the disputes - otherwise both countries' people have love and respect for each other.
I have always been worried about India and Pakistan fighting about Kashmir. I feel Kashmir is not at all a problem and not an issue. In my view the real issue is the India-Pakistan partition that was formed for the selfish interests of our political leaders during our independence. In my opinion all problems will get solved by themselves if we try to move towards merging together and formation of a great nation. I have no doubt that we together can become a great superpower, not only in terms of our military power but also in terms of economic power. We must seriously consider this, as it is high time we stop wasting our resources on an issue which actually is not at all an issue. I feel we must follow the example set by Germany and which is being followed by Korea now.
The BJP and its allies in the NDA need to quit making such a big deal about the meeting between Musharraf and members of the Hurriyat Conference. They keep claiming that the Hurriyat Conference is a non-entity. Fine. Then treat it as such and focus on the main issue - the meeting between Vajpayee and Musharraf. Why does it matter to Indians if the Hurriyat wants to have tea with the Pakistani General? Let them sit on his lap for all we care. Having said that, Pakistan should have had the sense not to complicate matters at this stage.
Pierre du Plessis, Pretoria, South Africa
Why is Pakistan so concerned of the well being of Kashmiri people when the economic and religious well being of its own people is in shambles? Has General Musharraf stepped out of his house to see how satisfied the average Pakistani is doing? I don't think so! Also I don't think he could do much anyway because Pakistani high school children are taught that their No. 1 enemy is the Indian, their neighbour.
I don't think anything good is going to come out of the summit because Pakistan is bent on discussing Kashmir and nothing else. Pakistan could be focusing on issues such as non-incitement of cross border terrorism, Islamic fundamentalism, its economy etc.
Kashmir is the Berlin wall of South Asia, on both sides of the border we share a common heritage, one of love and peace, it's time we started taking responsibility for our actions and work together towards a bright future.
Musharraf's invitation to the Hurriyat for a reception at the Pakistani Embassy in India, to the exclusion of the legitimate Kashmiri authorities, sets a dangerous precedent. Musharraf should understand one thing. Kashmir is, and always will be, an integral part of India. A final solution on Kashmir is a possibility, but only in the context of India maintaining her sovereignty over Kashmir. And such a solution would be dependent on two things: firstly, Pakistan must stop supporting cross-border terrorism; secondly, Pakistan must swiftly relinquish its military dictatorship and swiftly return to an approximation of democracy.
Deep damage has been done by both sides that will need to be undone. Pakistan has cultivated the deep feelings of hatred and allowed religion to permeate and fertilize these. Such actions doom relationships not for decades, but generations. India has been foolish in treating Kashmir with special status all along, rather than allowing it to assimilate in its mainstream. Now Pakistan lacks a leader that can really speak for the masses, and has the vision to undo the damage done over the last so many decades; how can he, after all if he tries to do so, he himself will fall victim to the sharks waiting to pounce on him.
Pakistan needs to toe along with the path being offered by India to let the peoples of both sides see and feel each other out. Only one generation ago, the lines that divide these two countries were non-existent. Finally the people's will has to prevail; only then will the politicians dirty agendas come to an end. So the people of India and Pakistan, wake up and see how the politicians have used you as a means to further their ends. That is the only way.
Unless India is willing to end its unjust and illegal occupation of Kashmir, there will be no worthwhile result from the forthcoming, or any other summit. India's occupation of Kashmir is no more legitimate than was Soviet Union's domination of Eastern Europe, and if Ronald Reagan could stand before the Berlin wall and ask Gorbachev to tear it down, why can't Parvez Musharraf ask Vajpayee to obey the rule of law as spelled out by the UN resolutions in Kashmir?
No, when there is no trust between both parties, nothing can be achieved. India cannot leave Kashmir and Pakistan cannot settle without it. Whoever compromises on this issue, is done forever. In short, we have to learn to live with this problem.
India and Pakistan should remove the visa restrictions between their people. Once the people of both countries start interacting, doing business with each other and familiarizing the way both live across the border, the tensions will automatically vanish. The Kashmir issue can only be resolved if both countries start interacting at the lowest level. Once people get to know each other and visit each other's cities, there will no longer be a Kashmir issue.
I think both India and Pakistan must first recognize
the root cause of the conflict : that the British sought to
divide the two nations on the basis of religion. Pakistan, India
and Kashmir are the sorry victims of the effects of divide and rule
tactics employed by the ex-colonial powers. It's sad that both sides
didn't have the strategic insight to expunge the British before. It's sadder still to see that both sides still don't possess the intelligence to recognize that cooperation
(in trade, information, technology and yes even military) is in their own interests. Pakistan especially needs to
focus more on its internal growth strategy rather than think of scoring small against India.
Pakistan ought to free itself from Mullahism and India of its jingoism.
Problem between India and Pakistan is not in Kashmir but in the minds of the people. The only way we can achieve peace is by changing our mindset. Therefore confidence-building measures should get a front seat in the talks.
Amit Sibal, London, England
It's time for the leaders to understand what the people of our two countries really need. There's no denying the truth that more than 50 precious years are wasted on scoring points over each other. The result has been all round moral decadence, social stagnation and cynicism. I believe it's time to take the bull by the horns, time to change, to cleanse hearts and solve the problem for good. A little courage, and we will have crossed the bridge to make history.
Converting the LOC into an international border is the only viable solution. It has to be followed by an agreement that binds both the countries from providing the so-called 'moral and political' support to terrorists operating on either soil. This can happen now, at the Agra summit, if both the leaders are bold and do not subscribe to pressure from hate mongers. If not, it will eventually happen a few years down the road, but only after the loss of many more precious lives and at the expense of already scant resources. Wake up, Pakistan. Wake up, India. Remember, we come from the same home, we share languages, cultures, religions. Let us also share a prosperous future.
I guess more money and effort is being spent in trying to defend an area of land than is being spent in developing the two nations, particularly after Pakistan's economy has admittedly been in the doldrums. Now if the governments gave up their "Kashmir" rhetoric and started working on more important issues like bilateral trade, trust building, defence spending cuts, technology and sports, it might eventually give an atmosphere of trust and the maturity to handle a problem like Kashmir. Otherwise this summit is going to be a lot of initial publicity and then wasted trust which might find an end eventually with a war as happened in Kargil.
Qasim, KL, Malaysia
Both leaders are trying to change the war mentality towards peace. If they failed to achieve anything concrete in the first meeting, subsequent meeting will help them. This is a good start.
It's great to know that both countries are progressing towards peace. Certainly the problem of five decades cannot be solved in a summit, but it is a positive step taken by both countries towards peaceful resolution - if not resolution at least peace. I wish the people of India and Pakistan good luck and pray God to shower peace.
Mohammed B. Alam, Miyazaki, Japan
Both the countries can prosper. The amount of money spent to combat terrorism if used for social well being, will help in development of both nations. Hope the two leaders will achieve the result.
I think neither India nor Pakistan will gain anything by fighting over Kashmir. Rather, they both have more to lose. Instead of fighting wars over Kashmir, they can work together to improve their economies and the standard of living of their people. Set aside the differences in religion, language etc. and try to build peace and harmony in the subcontinent. After all we both have same histories and similar current situation with poverty and illiteracy. So why not set aside our differences and strive to build better future for both the countries.
Shomaila Jafri, Delhi, India
No doubt, it is a welcoming move,
but the principles of justice demand
that the Kashmir issue is resolved
according to UN resolutions. Isn't
it preposterous that Kashmiris are
not even part of the peace talk?
India, Bangladesh and Pakistan should come together just like East and West Germany. They are people of the same race, just separated by religion. Even now there are more Muslims in India than there are in Pakistan. The British divided the sub-continent under their policy of "divide and rule". Both countries can prosper immensely if they have a common army and currency. Let the forces of unity bring together what the colonial powers cast asunder!
The biggest breakthrough is the talks themselves.
India and Pakistan will succeed if they talk 'to' each other and not 'at' each other.
A significant breakthrough in the summit talks is unlikely, but I believe it will start a process that may lead towards the normalisation of relationship between the two countries. It will start a dialogue process which will contain promise of a possible solution that may be acceptable to many. It's definitely better than not talking at all and relying on guns to push the other party.
Z. Asghar, TX, USA
With the insurgency of the extreme militant groups operating in Kashmir, India should consider this summit as a means to rid that region of all militants. I consider the presence of foreign militants on Indian soil a threat to national security of India. This threat can grow and build into a reason for war. The quickest solution should be to draw permanent boundaries while each side keeps the region of Kashmir that they are currently holding. India has more to lose if there are no solid moves made towards the Kashmir issue.
Aniruddha Phatak, Maidenhead, UK
I don't think Pakistan is trying enough to improve the bilateral relationship. I think both countries should have wider latitude to the problems, like trade, visa, poverty and Kashmir.
I don't expect any breakthrough or sudden advance by this summit. The reason being that none of the two countries has yet started building up any national consensus, without which the governments are not free to decide or make any allowances for each other.
As long as there are fanatic elements at work on both sides, there is little hope. India needs to tone down the rhetoric of extremist Hindu leaders while Pakistan should work towards cutting back the Islamic fundamentalist movements so powerful up in northern areas. Only then will confidence build up and lead to hopes of a lasting peace.
Nahdia Khan, London, UK
India should act as a big brother. It is relatively stable, therefore, it can afford to give more concessions. If India could resolve the Kashmir issue, it could play a better role at international level, and maybe win a permanent seat at the UN Security Council - even Pakistan might support this move.
Albert P'Rayan, India/ Rwanda
How can a general who has come to power after dismissing a democratically elected government talk about "rights of self determination" for somebody else? Musharaff cannot be seen to be giving any sort of concession to India nor is he interested in one since his and Pakistan's survival is based on anti-India rhetoric. Also, if he is seen to be giving anything at all, he is bound to lose power in a matter of months.
Nothing is going to happen ...
As the summit is approaching, both players seem to drifting apart. I pray, hope and wish that our leaders will be guided by peace, love, goodwill and friendship rather than war, hatred, suspicion and animosity. It is well within the capabilities of the two leaders to choose what attitudes will guide them. I pray that the Almighty blesses the two leaders with good qualities for the benefit of the people of the two countries, South Asia and the world at large.
Mumtaz Ahmad, USA
I think it is great that Pakistan is taking positive interest by attending the summit. But will it resolve the Kashimir issue? Not a chance. The West seems to forget that these two countries have had a long disturbed relation that can only be resolved with a positive attitude and support from the West.
What can the Agra summit achieve?
I think this summit has already achieved something even before it has started and the achievement is HOPE, even though it is remote.
In my opinion the best possible outcome for both India and Pakistan from this summit would be if they agree to hold a second round of talks in mid September and in the meantime realistically analysis what could be the win-win solution.
Pakistan and India should become a confederation. This will lesson their defence budgets and will help build their economies.
The only problem between the two countries has always been Kashmir and this is a great opportunity for them to finally get rid of this stalemate.
The only problem that India faces with giving Kashmiris freedom is that other provinces will ask the same.
I believe that Kashmir is an independent country that should be allowed to make its own choices about its internal affairs. India and Pakistan should step back and let it do this.
Khuram Khan, Canada
The "Agra summit" will work if it is approached as an "Agree Summit".
At the Agra summit, both leaders should discuss a possible economic union of South Asia. This will result in a long-term solution to Indo-Pak problems.
Kashmir has very little to do with the
mistrust between India and Pakistan.
Successive Pakistani governments have
made the hatred of infidel India the
cornerstone of their foreign policy;
insistence upon winning back infidel India
for Islam is preached from mosques
all over Pakistan. As long as this fundamental
mindset is not altered, very little will
change. President Musharraf seems
to be doing his best to break away
from this centuries-old hatred, but
how far he will succeed remains to be see.
19 Jun 01 | South Asia
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