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Monday, June 14, 1999 Published at 12:27 GMT 13:27 UK

Kosovo - the conflict on the Web

Kosovo: Special Report
The Internet has been buzzing with news and information about the conflict between Nato and Serbia. Tap into news sources from the Serbian and Albanian perspectives, take part in discussion forums or e-mail groups.

The following is BBC News Online's guide to how the conflict is being reported on the web. Click below to find out more about:

Censorship in Kosovo
Kosovo news services
Kosovo radio services
Serbian news services
Censorship in Serbia
Serbian radio services
Belgrade Webcam
How to surf anonymously
Comment and analysis sites
News from the military
The humanitarian situation
Peace activists and the crisis
The Rambouillet accords

Serbia clamps down

The last two Albanian daily newspapers in Kosovo - Kosova Sot and Koha Ditore have been forced to stop publishing in print or on the Web.

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You can still read Kosova Sot editorial staff's last piece from 13 March, protesting against "unfair measures that [the] Serbian government is pressing on us".

Kosova Press is one of a number of sites publishing uncensored and unconfirmed reports focused on the location and severity of the latest Serbian military operations.

News on the Net

Kosovo Info has short news stories and sometimes pictures, rounding up news from many of the other media outlets in Kosovo, including reports from Kosova Press.

Eyewitness reports of Serbian shelling and Nato attacks are among the site's highlights.

And a monk at a Serbian Orthodox monastery in Kosovo provided some accounts of local military action and the refugee crisis.

Father Sava Janjic at the Visoki Decani monastery has his own Web site and a mailing list hosted by eGroups' Kosovo Reports section.

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The Kosovo Crisis Centre publishes three comprehensive news reports a day, mainly detailing the Serbian forces' movements and attacks.

And Albanews, an Internet mailing list, is a public forum for news about Albania, Kosova, and the worldwide Albanian diaspora. The live discussions vary massively - from the Nato strikes to the price of fish in Albania.

The German-language Kosovo-Info-Line is a regularly-updated source of news about events in Kosovo, but the reports are not translated.

Radio going strong

Kosovo's Radio 21 descibes itself as the only Albanian-language radio service broadcasting in the region.

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Radio 21's news and Albanian music are broadcast on the Internet.

Although the station's English-language text and audio news stories have not continued during the fighting, there is an archive of reports about violence in Pristina before the bombing began.

Pristina's radio and television station RTPSAT publishes a daily audio news report in Albanian on the Internet.

To watch what's happening in Belgrade, try the Yugoslavia Online Webcam, which has a view of a busy main road in the capital.

Serbian Web media

Serbia's Ministry of Information has its own news site, Serbia Info, with news and politics stories updated several times a day.

Yugoslavia's Foreign Ministry publishes daily statements about the destruction of Serbian territory.

The Serbian Unity Congress also has a news site, with opinionated commentaries on moves and speeches by US, Nato and Yugoslavian leaders.

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The Yugoslavian state-run news agency Tanjug, has news reports in Serbian, English and French every day.

Serbia's opposition party, the Democratic Party of Serbia (DSS) published its members' views and comments on Nato and the strikes almost every day, in Serbo-Croat and in English.

The Serbian Press Agency (SRNA) has closed down operations, saying it is going through reorganisation.

Their site offers the alternative of tuning in to a radio news bulletin source, Flash, from Banja Luka.

The Beta news agency reports in English and Serbo-Croat on the situation in Belgrade.

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SerbiaNow! describes itself as a non-partisan, non-profit news digest. Publishing exclusively on the Web, it carries Serbo-Croat and English-language reports of the bombing.

Serbian daily newspapers on the web include Blic, Vecernje Novosti, and Politika.

The populist Dnevni Telegraf has been banned.

The Association of Independent Electronic Media, Anem, is a network of independent broadcasters in Serbia founded in 1997. Their site publishes information about the media repression situation in Serbia and stories about detentions of journalists and editors.

B92 off the air

On 2 April, Serbian police closed down the Belgrade offices of the independent radio station Radio B92, and sealed off the premises.

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A statement on the station's Website said that B92's director, Sasa Mirkovic, was detained for eight hours before being released unharmed and without explanation.

You can listen to a statement by Mr Mirkovi concerning the closure.

For the latest news from the region, B92 is directing listeners to a news site called Press Now which provides audio reports.

Support for Internet radio

B92's transmitter had been confiscated by the Serbian authorities when Nato air strikes began on 24 March.

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But the station had continued to broadcast and publish on the Internet, and via local radio stations in a number of towns in Serbia and Montenegro.

B92's web site has an archive of reports of the bombing in Real Video and the Serbian Information Initiative site provides English translations of those news reports. The news stories are also on mirror sites in Europe and North America.

Based in Amsterdam, the B92 Support Group attempts to distribute news by and about B92 and publishes the work of other independent journalists from Serbia and Kosovo.

From Belgrade, Radio Yugoslavia has text and audio news on the Internet in five languages, as well as shortwave broadcasts in 11 languages.

Internet anonymity

The Internet's Anonymiser service has introduced an emergency Kosovo Privacy Project to give Kosovans, Serbs, and others reporting on the situation anonymous email and anonymous access to information and discussion groups.

Among the sites that their Anonymiser Surfing system will now read without delay is BBC News Online's special report on the crisis.

Comment and analysis

There is a wealth of news and comment at the Institute for War and Peace Reporting, with fascinating eyewitness reports setting the scene in Belgrade and lighter articles like "How Nostradamus saw it all coming".

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The Institute for War and Peace Reporting publishes Yugoslav Media Monitor is a bi-weekly service analysing the media in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Jurist, an international law professors' network, has produced a Legal Guide to the Kosovo Conflict, which tackles the academic controversies over the Rambouillet negotiations, UN documents and statements, war crimes and human rights.

The International Journal of Albanian Studies publishes comment and analysis from experts on the region's problems.

News from the military

The Federation of American Scientists Military Analysis Network maintains an Operation Allied Force section with masses of resources on Nato and Serbian military capabilities. There is also a constantly updated unofficial Nato Order of Battle.

The official Nato Internet site has a Kosovo latest news section with press releases and transcripts of official speeches.

The site offers maps, aerial views of targets "post- and pre-strikes", photographs and video sequences of actual attacks

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The UK's Ministry of Defence has a Kosovo News section with speeches statements and maps, with some reports now translated into Serbo-Croat. The MOD has reported receiving hundreds of emails in Serbo-Croat in response to their multi-lingual approach.

DefenseLink, the official web site for the US Department of Defence offers live broadcasts from daily briefings at the Pentagon, although there is a maximum of 200 simultaneous users.

The United States Information Agency has a Kosovo section, where you can find speeches by the president or subscribe to a Kosovo mailing list. This site is also published in Albanian and Serbo-Croat.

Yugoslavia's Ministry of Foreign Affairs reports the Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic's daily activities and meetings, and details of the Nato attacks.

Jane's Defence Weekly's special Kosovo crisis section reports on Nato operations in the conflict. The focus is on appraising the deployment of new and specialised military hardware.

Reporting the refugee situation

The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees site updates its latest Kosovo refugee figures in table form, as soon as they come in.

The site details the countries they have sought refuge in, the emergency relief efforts under way and the aid consignments arriving from abroad.

Details of the OSCE's Kosovo Verification Mission are on the Web, with an archive of reports on the ceasefire in the region, and the movement of forces and displaced persons before the monitors left.

Human Rights Watch organisation's Kosovo Focus section has a bulletin, statements about the refugee situation, and reports on repression of the media in English and Serbian .

A huge list of agencies assisting Kosovo Albanian refugees including Doctors without Borders and the Red Cross can be found on the US National Public Radios site for the Talk of the Nation programme.

The Balkan Action Council's Website publishes opinion and analysis material, attempting to answer questions such as Why are we in Kosovo?

The Disaster Message Service, developed to allow people to stay in touch during times of disaster, has a free Yugoslavia Service; there is a similar free service at the Kosovo: Keep in touch site.

The President of the Republic of Albania's site has an appeal for humanitarian assistance for Kosovo Albanian refugees in Albania, with details of how to donate.

Peace activists and the crisis

For an alternative view about the Nato action, Znet's Kosovo Emergency pages have interesting essays and resources aimed at US-based peace activists.

And the Common Dreams "Drumbeats of War" site presents a round-up of interesting articles with wide-ranging points of view that have previously appeared in newspapers and journals across the United States.

Based in Montenegro, the Alternative Information Network has news in English and in Serbo-Croat. The reports take a regional view of the crisis, and there are fascinating updates on the state of relationship between countries bordering Kosovo.

The International Action Centre reports on the activities of anti-war movements around the world. There are details of international days of protest and environmental hazards posed by some of the weaponry being used in the region.

The Rambouillet accords

Nato's bombing of Yugoslavia followed President Slobodan Milosevic's failure to accept international demands formulated at the peace talks in Rambouillet, in Paris.

The main sticking point was over the deployment of international troops in Kosovo to police the political autonomy that President Milosevic was prepared to grant the province.

The Jurist Legal Network has published the full text of the Rambouillet Accords or Interim Agreement for Peace and Self-Government In Kosovo agreed on 23 February 1999.

The US State Department has a Summary of the accords.

There is also a Serbian counter-proposal called the Agreement for self-government in Kosmet on an official Yugoslav Website.

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