As day broke in Mumbai, the situation on the ground was still confused with reports of gunfire and explosions at between seven and 16 locations.
The city's main commuter train station, a hospital, a restaurant and two hotels - locations used by foreigners as well as local businessmen and leaders - were among those places caught up in the violence.
Commandos have surrounded the two hotels, the Taj Mahal Palace and the Oberoi Trident, where it is believed that the armed men are holding dozens of hostages.
In other developments:
• Fire crews evacuate people from the upper floors of the Taj Mahal Palace, where police say a grenade attack caused a blaze
• The head of Mumbai's anti-terrorism unit and two other senior officers are among those killed, officials say
• The White House holds a meeting of top intelligence and counter-terrorism officials, and pledges to help the Indian government
• Trading on India's Bombay Stock Exchange and National Stock Exchange markets will remain closed on Thursday, officials say.
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