Key Communist allies of India's ruling coalition have denounced the government for voting against Iran at a meeting of the UN's nuclear agency, the IAEA.
Iran says its nuclear programme is only for producing energy
Twenty-seven states out of 35 voted on Saturday to report Iran to the Security Council over its nuclear activities.
India voted in favour of the motion in spite of the government coming under domestic pressure to stand by Iran.
The Communist parties' support is crucial for the survival of the Congress party-led Indian coalition.
The four Communist parties said the stand taken by India "was not in conformity with the pursuit of an independent foreign policy".
A statement issued by the largest Left party - Communist Party of India (Marxist) - said "the Left parties reiterate that India should not be party to any referral to the Security Council nor countenance any recommendation for taking action through the UN Security Council".
The four Left parties have called for a full debate on the issue in the parliament which is due to open for its Budget session later this month.