For the first time a woman has carried out a suicide attack in Indian-administered Kashmir, the police there say.
Police said the bomb exploded before she reached the national highway, thought to be her target.
A caller claiming to be a spokesman for the militant group, Jaish-e Mohammad, told the BBC that the woman was a member of their group.
India and Pakistan began peace talks in early 2004.
The explosion took place in the town of Avantipur in the district of Pulwama.
The site of the explosion, just a few metres from the national highway, was immediately sealed by police and security forces, authorities said.
The national highway is crowded with relief convoys taking aid to areas affected by Saturday's earthquake.
The police have found parts of the woman's body along with three grenades.
No one was injured in the attack.
A spokesman for the militant group, Jaish-e Mohammad, said the army was the bomber's target.
The conflict is believed to have claimed more than 40,000 lives.
India accuses Pakistan of training, arming and funding Islamic militancy in the region.
Pakistan strongly denies the charge but says it extends "moral, political and diplomatic support" to Kashmiris seeking independence from India.