Iran has singled India out for criticism over Delhi's support for Iran to be referred to the UN Security Council over its nuclear plans.
Iran insists it wants civilian nuclear power, not weapons
"India's vote came as a great surprise to us," an Iranian Foreign Ministry spokesman said on Tuesday.
"We will reconsider our economic cooperation with those countries that voted against us."
India and Iran are in negotiations over a $7bn gas pipeline deal that would help India's energy supply problems.
Iranian Foreign Ministry spokesman Hamid Reza Asefi made his comments about India during a wider press briefing on Iran's nuclear ambitions.
He told journalists that Iran would resume enrichment of uranium if a resolution passed by the International Atomic Energy Agency paving the way for referral to the UN Security Council was not amended.
The BBC's Frances Harrison in Tehran says that would be a major escalation of the crisis.
The United States has expressed its thanks to India after it voted at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to refer Iran to the UN Security Council.
"We appreciate the support. The world is saying to Iran that it is time to come clean," White House spokesman Scott McClellan said.
India denies coming under US pressure to back the resolution.
The Indian foreign ministry says the IAEA resolution was consistent with Delhi's stated position on Iran.
The statement said India's vote was in no way linked to a recent landmark India-US nuclear accord.
The Indian government is under attack both from the opposition as well as Communist allies for its decision to side with the West and vote against Iran, a traditional ally.
The BBC's Sanjeev Srivastava in Delhi says officials there are trying to portray their decision as a compromise formula which will give all parties concerned time to arrive at a consensus on issues relating to Iran's nuclear programme.
The IAEA resolution was passed 22-1 with 12 abstentions on Saturday. Venezuela was the only country to vote against it. Russia and China abstained.
The vote in Vienna came hours after Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh urged Iran's President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad to be prepared to make concessions in order to avoid confrontation.
Iran denies seeking nuclear arms, saying it wants nuclear technology purely for peaceful production of energy. It has called the resolution illegal.