By Andrew North
BBC correspondent in Kabul
Threats on women by the Taleban and warlords are undermining their participation in Afghanistan's upcoming elections, a human rights group says.
Women make up more than 40% of the electorate
The US-based Human Rights Watch says in a report that very few women have registered to vote on Saturday in areas where the Taleban are active.
The report says even campaign workers have received death threats for raising women's issues.
More than 40% of Afghanistan's 10.5 million registered voters are women.
The US government has claimed that the rights of Afghan women have improved after the Taleban were removed in 2001.
The Human Rights Watch report offers little hope from Saturday's election.
It says very few women are expected to turn out to cast their ballots on polling day.
The report highlights instances where campaign workers have been harassed and received death threats for raising women's rights issues, such as making it easier for them to divorce.
Such an issue remains highly sensitive and most of the candidates running for the election, including President Hamid Karzai, have done their best to avoid it.
There is no doubt that life has got better for Afghan women with the removal of the Taleban and their harsh restrictions.
More than a million girls are now at school.
Many are working, all of this underpinned by a new constitution enshrining equal rights with men.
But for many women, things have barely changed.
Many are still not allowed to work by their families, while many suffer violence at the hands of husbands and other relatives.
Far too often, they find the authorities unable or unwilling to protect them because of deep-rooted social attitudes.
Afghanistan's Women's Affairs Minister Habiba Sarabi says stronger laws are not enough.
"Education is also very, very important. It's a fundamental thing. Changing attitudes of men, rather than women, because this is a male-dominated country and men should change their minds towards the women," she says.