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Wednesday, 5 December, 2001, 19:23 GMT
Guide to Afghan deal
Afghan groups sign deal in Bonn
Four main factions have signed the agreement
After nine days of intensive talks, Afghan groups signed a two-stage deal aimed at setting up a transitional government.

Four main groups signed the agreement - the Northern Alliance, the Pakistan-based Peshawar Front, the Iran-backed Cyprus Group, and the Rome Process representing former King Zahir Shah.

Ahmad Karzai
Hamid Karzai: Named head of interim authority
Pashtun tribal leader Hamid Karzai will serve as head of the interim power-sharing council and an international peacekeeping force is being deployed to guarantee security in the Afghan capital.

Key posts

The Northern Alliance, which has controlled Kabul since the fall of the Taleban, will hold the three most powerful ministries.

The 30-member cabinet will include 11 Pashtuns, eight Tajiks, five from the Shi'a Hazara population, three Uzbeks, with the rest drawn from other minorities.

  • Younis Qanooni, who led the alliance's delegation, will be interior minister.

  • Alliance commander-in-chief General Mohammad Fahim will be in charge of the Defence Ministry.

  • Dr Abdullah Abdullah will retain his position as foreign secretary.

  • No position has been decided for former president Burhanuddin Rabbani, but he may be appointed to a planned Supreme Court, to be created at a later date.

  • Former King Zahir Shah is also expected to play a role in the concil.

  • Two women, including Sima Samar, who will serve as one of five deputies to Mr Karzai.

The UN has said the new authority must guarantee freedom of expression and women's rights.

Key points detailed

The agreement acknowledges "the right of the people of Afghanistan to freely determine their own political future in accordance with the principles of Islam, democracy, pluralism and social justice".

It notes that "these interim arrangements are intended as a first step toward the establishment of a broad-based, gender-sensitive, multi-ethnic and fully representative government, and are not intended to remain in place beyond the specified period of time".

The Interim Authority to be established on 22 December 2001 consists of:

  • 30-member Interim Administration presided over by a Chairman
  • Special Independent Commission to convene the Emergency Loya Jirga (assembly of elders)
  • Central Bank
  • Supreme Court

There will also be a Judicial Commission to rebuild the justice system "in accordance with Islamic principles, international standards, the rule of law and Afghan legal traditions".

The Interim Authority "shall be the repository of Afghan sovereignty, with immediate effect". It will represent Afghanistan in its external relations and occupy its UN seat.

The Emergency Loya Jirga will be convened within six months of the establishment of the Interim Authority, and will be opened by former King Mohamad Zahir Shah.

Transitional Authority

It will decide on a Transitional Authority, including a broad-based transitional administration "to lead Afghanistan until such time as a fully representative government can be elected", no later than two years from the convening of the Emergency Loya Jirga.

The Emergency Loya Jirga will also elect a Head of State for the transitional administration.

A Constitutional Loya Jirga will be convened within 18 months of the establishment of the Transitional Authority, in order to adopt a new constitution for the country.

Upon the official transfer of power, all mujahedeen, Afghan armed forces and armed groups in the country "shall come under the command and control of the Interim Authority, and be reorganized according to the requirement of the new Afghan security and armed forces."


An annex to the agreement requests the UN Security Council to consider authorising the early deployment to Afghanistan of a United Nations mandated force, which will assist in the maintenance of security for Kabul and its surrounding areas.

The participants pledge to withdraw all military units from Kabul and other urban centers or other areas in which the UN-mandated force is deployed.

The United Nations will advise the Interim Authority in establishing a politically neutral environment conducive to the holding of the Emergency Loya Jirga in free and fair conditions.

The United Nations shall have the right to investigate human rights violations and recommend corrective action.

The BBC's Peter Biles reports from Bonn
"There are at least two women who have been nominated to positions"
The BBC's David Loyn
profiles Afghanistan's new leader Hamid Karzai


Political uncertainty






See also:

04 Dec 01 | South Asia
30 Nov 01 | South Asia
25 Nov 01 | South Asia
05 Dec 01 | South Asia
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