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Thursday, 31 August, 2000, 13:36 GMT 14:36 UK
First Jersey cow clone
Millie University of Tennessee
Millie is genetically identical to Teresa, the cow that supplied the calf's DNA
Millie the cow is the latest animal clone to be introduced to the world.

She is the third bovine cloned from adult cells to be born in the United States but the first copy to be made of a Jersey cow.

US researchers say she was cloned using a quicker and less complicated method than that used to create Dolly the sheep.

The brown and white calf, whose name Millie is short for Millennium, was born on 23 August.

"Cloning procedures are more simple than we first thought," said Dr Lannett Edwards, who led the research team at the University of Tennessee.

Nevertheless, the success rate of cloning experiments remains extremely low. Millie was born after 95 cloning attempts.

It took 277 attempts to produce Dolly the sheep, and the Tennessee researchers hope to improve on their success rate in future experiments.

Teresa University of Tennessee
Nuclear DNA was taken from Teresa
To produce Millie, the scientists collected DNA from the cultured cells of a Jersey cow named Teresa, a prize-winning milker.

They say they did not have to induce the adult cells into a "quiet" state before using them for cloning, a step that was used to produce Dolly.

They removed the DNA from the egg of another cow, leaving behind egg cytoplasm, and then fused this empty egg cell with the nucleus, containing the DNA, of one of Teresa's cells.

The result was a one-cell embryo clone containing nuclear DNA entirely from Teresa.

After seven days, the embryo was transferred to a surrogate animal, a black Angus cow.

Millie was born after 278 days - the normal gestation for a cow.

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See also:

06 Jul 98 | Sci/Tech
Cloned calves at the double
23 Jul 98 | Sci/Tech
Cloned mice follow Dolly
27 Apr 99 | Sci/Tech
Scientists clone a goat
01 Jun 99 | Sci/Tech
Fibro's a first for male cloning
09 Apr 99 | Sci/Tech
Multiple monkey cloning attempt
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