Environment Secretary Hilary Benn said while Britain was more self-sufficient now than it was in the 1930s and 1950s, everyone had to start thinking ahead about how to produce more using less water and less fertiliser.
He said last year's sudden jump in the price of food and oil, which most fertilisers are based on, was a "wake-up call".
"We saw last year when the oil price went up and there was a drought in Australia, which had an impact on the price of bread here in the UK, just how interdependent all these things are," he said.
"We have to feed another two and a half to three billion mouths over the next 40 to 50 years, so I want British agriculture to produce as much food as possible."
He also encouraged British consumers to buy more UK-grown produce and called for a re-think on best before or sell by dates to reduce waste.
Food for the future
Today's food security assessment focuses on six areas, including global availability, UK food chain resilience and household food security.
Population growth means the world needs more food from fewer inputs
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