The European Commission has put forward far-reaching proposals to tackle climate change and boost security and competition in the EU's energy market.
The commission is aiming for a new "industrial revolution" leading to a low-carbon economy. It is based on three pillars:
A true internal energy market
Separating energy production from energy distribution by boosting competition and curbing the power of Europe's energy giants
Strengthening independent regulatory control of the energy sector
Accelerating the shift to low-carbon energy
At least 20% of all EU energy should come from renewable sources by 2020 and 10% of vehicle fuel from biofuels, and these targets should be made binding for the first time
The EU should also increase by at least 50% its annual spending on energy research for the next seven years
The commission reiterates the objective of boosting the efficiency of energy use by 20% by 2020
The commission proposes that the use of fuel-efficient vehicles is accelerated; tougher standards and better labelling on appliances; improved energy performance of the EU's existing buildings and improved efficiency of heat and electricity generation, transmission and distribution
The commission also proposes a new international agreement on energy efficiency, based on a 30% cut in greenhouse gas emissions by all developed nations by 2020.