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Inside Money Monday, 5 August, 2002, 13:01 GMT 14:01 UK
The welfare state 1945 - 2002
Timeline - The Welfare State 1832 - 2002
A chronology of key events:

1945 - The Family Allowances Act provides a regular sum for second and subsequent children to be paid to the mother.

1946 - The National Health Service Act is passed in order to provide a free and fully comprehensive health service.

1948 - The National Insurance Act establishes the welfare state as recommended by the Beveridge report of 1942 with compulsory contributions to cover unemployment, sickness, maternity, widows, old age benefits, and funeral grants.

The National Assistance Act is passed and the Poor Law abolished.

The National Assistance Board is created to assist people whose resources are insufficient. The National Health Service begins on 5 July.

1951 - The National Health Service Act authorised charges for dental and optical appliances

1959 - The National Insurance Act introduced earnings related pensions and contributions - a major departure from Beveridge's principle of flat rate contributions and pensions. The scheme became effective in 1961.

1960 - First issue of a behind-the-ear hearing aid through the National Health Service.

1965 - The Family Allowances Act, the National Insurance Act and the National Insurance (Industrial Injuries) Act consolidated previous legislation.

1966 - The Social Security Act abolishes National Assistance and replaces it with Supplementary Benefits. The National Assistance Board becomes the Supplementary Benefits Commission; and after means testing, non-contributory benefits and allowances are introduced.

1967 - The General Practice Finance Corporation is set up.

1970 - Local Authority Social Services Act leads to the setting up of social services departments within local authorities.

The Chronically Sick and Disabled Persons Act extends the powers and duties of local authorities to help disabled people.

The National Insurance Act extends eligibility for widows' pensions; introduces non-contributory pensions and Attendance Allowance for disabled people.

The Family Income Supplements Act provides for a new benefit for families with small incomes. The families are exempted from health service charges and children are eligible for free school meals.

1973 - The Social Security Act introduces introduces earnings related contributions; annual reviews; and phases out the graduated pensions scheme.

1975 - Free family planning services are made available, from all NHS clinics to all people, irrespective of age and marital status.

1975 - The Child Benefit Act replaces family allowances with child benefits.

1980 - The Education Act relaxes the provision of milk and meals and limits free school meals to children receiving supplementary benefits or family income supplement.

1987 - Increasing NHS cash crises leads to closure of wards and the demand to review NHS financing.

The presidents of the Royal Colleges of Physicians, Surgeons, Obstetricians and Gynaecologists wrote to the prime minister stating that the NHS had almost reached the point of collapse.

1988 - Supplementary Benefits become Income Support.

The Department of Health and Social Security splits into the Department of Health and the Department of Social Security.

1991 - The Disability Living Allowance and Disability Working Allowance Act introduces two new allowances for disabled people.

1994 - Social Security Act replaces long-term sickness benefit and invalidity benefit with incapacity benefit.

1997 - The first Minister of Public Health (Tessa Jowell) is appointed, and a health strategy developed to break the cycle of ill health due to poverty and deprivation.

1999 - The Welfare Reform and Pensions Act proposes that all benefit claimants must attend interviews within three days of making their first claim to discuss entitlement, reasons for not working, and to obtain help in getting a job.

Stakeholder pension schemes are introduced

Widows' benefit extends to widowers

Benefits for the long-term sick, children and young people are reformed.

2000 - In this year's budget the chancellor announces big real increases in Income Support scales for families with children

2001 - In this year's budget the chancellor announces big real increases in Minimum Income Guarantee for pensioners.

The real level of benefits for childless couples and single people are not improved.


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