The collapse of Pakistan's state education system has created a huge opportunity for militants to exploit.
Madrasas run by extremist mullahs have sprung up across the country, training boys and girls in a potentially lethal curriculum.
Bill Law tells the story behind the recent Red Mosque siege and the ongoing battle over the future of Pakistan's schools
BBC Radio 4's Crossing Continents was broadcast on Thursday, 13 September 2007 at 1102 BST.
This is the last programme in this series of Crossing Continents. The next series begins on Thursday, 8 November 2007.
Reporter/Producer: Bill Law