Catalonia, one of Spain's wealthiest regions, has seen an influx of nearly a million new immigrants since 2000.
But many newcomers are finding that settling in Barcelona and the towns around can throw up more challenges than making a home elsewhere in Spain.
Catalonia is fiercely nationalist. And since the demise of General Franco 30 years ago, nationalist politicians have dominated the agenda.
But there is an anxiety about the newcomers - that they may dilute what many feel is a hard-won and very special identity - in particular that they do not learn the local language, Catalan.
Crossing Continents was broadcast on Thursday, 4 January 2006 at 1102 GMT and repeated on Monday, 8 January at 2030 GMT.
Presenter: Marian Hens
Producers: Rosy Voudouri and Linda Pressly
Editor: Sue Ellis