A well-known Israeli critic of Jewish settlement in the occupied West Bank, Zeev Sternhell, has been slightly wounded in a bomb attack.
Police suspect ultra-nationalists Israelis were behind the attack.
Professor Sternhall has also strongly opposed the Israeli blockade of the Gaza Strip, describing it as immoral and ineffective.
Earlier this year, Professor Sternhall was awarded the prestigious Israel Prize for political science.
Mr Sternhell suffered minor shrapnel wounds in one leg.
Israeli police spokesman Micky Rosenfeld said several assailants were waiting for Mr Sternhell shortly after midnight on Wednesday outside his home in Jerusalem.
They escaped after throwing a small pipe bomb.
Mr Rosenfeld said police "believe the background [to the attack] is ideological".
Reports say police investigators found posters in Mr Sternhell's neighbourhood offering a reward of $320,000 to anyone who kills a member of Peace Now, an Israeli group that campaigns against settlement building to which the academic belongs.
Mr Sternhell, a Holocaust survivor, is best known for his work on the history of fascism.