The government of Kuwait has submitted its resignation to the country's emir, state television has reported.
Last July, the opposition won a majority in parliament
The move comes ahead of a vote of no-confidence in a senior minister.
Health Minister Sheikh Ahmad Abdullah al-Sabah, a member of the royal family, had faced accusations of mismanagement and incompetence.
The government, in office for eight months, had reportedly failed to secure enough support to avoid defeat in Monday's vote.
Sheikh Ahmad had been questioned in parliament on 19 February but failed to persuade MPs not to call the vote.
He was defending himself against accusations by some opposition MPs that he was responsible for financial mismanagement and "grave medical errors that led to the death of several patients".
No Kuwaiti minister has been voted from office since 1962, when parliament was introduced, although several facing votes of no-confidence have quit.
The government came to power after an election in June last year.
Kuwait's ruler approved a cabinet dominated by his own family despite the opposition's victory.