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Monday, 9 September, 2002, 16:18 GMT 17:18 UK
UN resolutions on Iraq
BBC News Online outlines the key United Nations Security Council Resolutions (UNSCR) on Iraq stemming from the 1990 invasion of Kuwait.

UNSCR 660 and 661 - 2/6 August 1990
Condemn the invasion and impose economic sanctions:

Resolution 660 demanded that Iraq immediately withdraw its troops to the positions held prior to the invasion on 1 August 1990.

Resolution 661 imposed a full trade embargo, stopping all imports from and exports to Iraq except for food, medicine and humanitarian supplies.

The resolution set up the 661 Committee to oversee the sanctions.

UNSCR 687 - 3 April 1991
Ceasefire agreement at the end of the Gulf War:

Resolution 687 created a UN observer force to monitor the demilitarised zone.

The resolution also called for the destruction, removal or rendering harmless of:

  • All chemical and biological weapons, and all stocks of agents and components

  • All research, development, support and manufacturing facilities for ballistic missiles with a range greater than 150km and related repair and production facilities.

Resolution 687 created a special commission - Unscom - to inspect Iraq's chemical, biological and nuclear facilities.

Iraq was required to hand over all biological and chemical weapons to Unscom for destruction, and ordered to respect the 1968 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.

The resolution outlined these demands as part of a wider scheme to create a zone in the Middle East free from weapons of mass destruction, with the global objective of a worldwide ban on chemical weapons.

UNSCR 688 - 5 April 1991
Condemns repression of civilians in Iraq:

The Security Council condemned repressive measures exercised by the Iraqi regime against civilians, and demanded access for humanitarian groups.

At the end of the war, uprisings against the regime by Kurds in northern Iraq and Shia Muslims in the south were brutally suppressed by the Iraqi military.

The Gulf War coalition did little to stop this, but the US, Britain and France created a northern 'safe haven' and a so-called 'no fly zone' under the auspices of Resolution 688.

A similar no-fly zone was set up in southern Iraq in 1992, and extended in 1996.

UNSCR 706 - 15 August 1991
Suggests allowing Iraq to export oil to pay for food and medicine:

This resolution proposed allowing Iraq to export up to $1.6bn of oil, the revenue from which would be paid into a UN-administered account.

This could only be used to buy food, medicines and other essential material for a six month period.

Some of this account would be used to meet compensation payments to Kuwait and the cost of UN operations.

UNSCR 707 - 15 August 1991
Demands compliance with weapons inspectors:

This resolution emphasised the need for Iraq to allow Unscom and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) immediate and unconditional access to any areas they wish to inspect.

Iraq was also ordered to not to move or attempt to hide anything relating to its nuclear, chemical or biological programmes.

UNSCR 949 - 15 October 1994
Orders Iraq to refrain from threatening its neighbours:

This resolution demanded that Iraq should:

  • Withdraw forces recently deployed to southern Iraq to their original positions

  • Not use any forces in a hostile or provocative manner to threaten either neighbouring countries or UN staff working in Iraq

  • Not redeploy or enhance its military forces in the south of the country.

Iraq was again ordered to comply fully with Unscom inspectors.

UNSCR 986 - 14 April 1995
Establishes the 'oil for food' programme:

Discussed in Resolution 706, this measure eventually came into force in 1996 after a delay in securing Iraqi agreement.

Under its terms, Iraq was allowed to:

  • Sell oil in exchange for food as a "temporary measure to provide the humanitarian needs of the Iraqi people"

  • Export oil products at the rate of $1bn every 90 days.

Revenues from oil sales must be paid into a UN-administered account, with a committee set up to monitor the exchange process, the resolution stipulated.

UNSCR 1051 - 27 March 1996
Import monitoring system agreed:

The Security Council passed this resolution recognising the need for Iraqi imports and exports to be monitored by Unscom and the IAEA.

The resolution called for countries exporting so-called dual use items - which could potentially be used in weapons systems - to notify Unscom.

UNSCR 1137 - 12 November 1997
Iraqi travel restrictions outlined:

This measure condemned continuing violations of earlier resolutions by Iraq, and again demanded that Baghdad comply with the Unscom inspectors.

As a punitive measure, it imposed travel restrictions on Iraqi officials deemed to have obstructed the weapons inspectors.

UNSCR 1284 - 17 December 1999
Unmovic established:

The United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (Unmovic) was created to replace Unscom.

Iraq was ordered to allow Unmovic teams immediate and unconditional access to any weapons sites and facilities.

The resolution also recognised the importance of a comprehensive approach to enforcing Security Council resolutions regarding Iraq.

It demanded that Iraq improve the humanitarian situation in the country - but also lifted the ceiling on Iraqi oil exports.

UNSCR 1409 - 14 May 2002
Territorial backing set out:

This resolution reaffirmed UN members commitment to maintaining the territorial integrity of Iraq.

It also drew up a list of products - the so-called Goods Review List - which would be subjected to the scrutiny of the sanctions committee.

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02 Aug 02 | Middle East
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