Thousands more Pakistani civilians are being forced from their homes as the military offensive against Taleban fighters intensifies.
In the Buner district, buildings destroyed in fighting between government forces and militants could be seen.
Mangled vehicles were strewn over the road.
Heavily armed troops could be seen patrolling the roads.
Battle tanks have been deployed in the government's "all-out" offensive.
Some internal refugees are in displaced camps - having left most of their possessions behind, and sometimes having been separated from family.
Many local people are on the move - though others are trapped by militants, an army curfew or blocked roads.
The mass movement of people began days ago, as the offensive loomed.
Members of different faith communities have been caught up in the exodus.
Many children are among those who have fled their homes.
Protesters demanded an end to the fighting in the Pakistani capital, Islamabad.
In India, Sikhs protested against alleged atrocities by the Taleban against their co-religionists in Pakistan.
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