Nebuchadnezzar II ruled Babylon from 604-561 BC, building palaces and the famed hanging gardens.
More recently, former ruler Saddam Hussein sought to leave his mark on the site, building walls and ramparts on top of ancient ruins.
He also built a huge palace that looks down on the site.
A statue of a lion killing a man has been raised on a plinth.
The site's manager says the US military damaged the ruins by building a concrete helicopter pad.
US and Polish soldiers also used soil from the site to fill sandbags.
Now US troops mostly just fly over, having handed the site back to the Iraqis three years ago. (All photos by the BBC's Andrew North)