Tens of thousands of lorry drivers in Spain have begun an indefinite strike in protest against the cost of diesel fuel, which has risen by more than 20% since the start of the year.
After stopping work at midnight on Sunday, some of the drivers parked their vehicles beside roadside toll booths on the border between Spain and France, causing serious disruption.
Virtual gridlock was created as tailbacks stretched for up to 10km (six miles) on roads leading to the French border .
A number of lorries crossing the picket lines had their windscreens broken, lights ripped out and tyres slashed. There have also been protests in Madrid, Barcelona, the Basque Country and Valencia.
The lorry drivers are receiving support from counterparts in Portugal and southern France, who have also been disrupting the flow of traffic along some of the main routes into Spain.
They are following the lead of Spanish and French fishermen, many of whom have been on strike since last month because of the cost of maritime diesel, which has risen by 240% in the past five years.
The government is preparing a package to assist the sector, with emergency loans, more flexible contracts and cash payments to older lorry drivers who are willing to retire.