Hundreds of thousands fled their homes when Kenya's election turned violent this year. Many slept rough, exposed to mosquitoes. Medics treating them lacked data on immunity and drug resistance levels.
Even before Kenya erupted in violence, malaria was a big killer - in Nyanza province, it accounts for 60% of the deaths of children under five. Here, Ruth Nyasei is being treated at the Kisii District Hospital. (Picture: Jacqueline Koch)
Displaced people often have to live in makeshift shelters, such as these at the Kusasi camp in Rutshuru, in DR Congo. It is almost impossible to hang bed nets inside. (Picture: Kate Eshebly)
The people living in the camp often sit outside their huts at dusk, the time when mosquitoes are most likely to bite. (Picture: Kate Eshebly)
An estimated 1.1million people are displaced across DR Congo. Blood testing is the only way to diagnose malaria accurately, as shown here in the Kusasi camp. (Picture: Kate Eshebly)
At least one in 10 Somalis have been made homeless by conflict. They are vulnerable to malaria because of inadequate shelter, and a shortage of clean water and food.
Mothers and babies with too little to eat are prone to anaemia, and lowered immunity. In Batticaloa, Sri Lanka, some people displaced by the Asian tsunami, were soon made homeless again by fighting. (Picture: Jacqueline Koch)