A ceremony in Madrid has marked the official start of events marking 200 years since the beginning of the Peninsular War.
This six-year struggle saw Spain, supported by Britain and other European nations, overthrow a regime installed by Napoleonic France.
Spain's Prince Felipe hosted a ceremony attended by government ministers from the nations involved.
The event was held outside the royal palace in the Spanish capital.
Flags from all the nations involved - including France - were raised.
This war cost up to a million lives, but today the adversaries in the conflict are friends and allies.