Male Transvaal dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion transvaalense) in typical display posture when facing a rival - throat extended, body flattened and tail coiled.
Kynsna dwarf chameleons (Bradypodion damaranum) in contest. The male on the left is showing dominant coloration and the male on the right is showing submissive coloration.
Transvaal dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion transvaalense) displaying to a female. Males show the same bright display colours to court females as to intimidate rivals.
Dwarf chameleons rely on colour change to intimidate rivals, while Jackson's chameleons, (Chameleo jacksonii, above) have horns for fighting and testing each others' strength.
Duelling Transkei dwarf chameleons (Bradypodion caffrum). 'Winner' and 'loser' colours show the range of colour change among a species.