Crowds have gathered in Nanjing to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the Chinese city's most notorious event - the massacre of hundreds of thousands by Japanese troops.
Monks, nuns, city dignitaries and survivors of the events of 1937 gathered at the solemn memorial ceremony.
The ceremony marked the reopening of the Memorial Hall of the Nanjing Massacre, which includes a display of all of the names of those who are thought to have died.
A bell was rung and 3,000 pigeons released into the air as a symbol of peace.
The memorial was deliberately low-key, as Chinese officials seek to improve relations with Tokyo. Some Japanese dispute China's description of the scale of the massacre.
But the events of 1937 are still fresh in the minds of many Chinese people, and some came to the service carrying banners urging their compatriots never to forget.