The streets of central Madrid saw an unusual procession on Sunday as thousands of sheep staged a noisy march.
The protest - now in its 15th year - is held to defend ancient grazing routes threatened by urban sprawl and man-made frontiers.
The bleating and stench filled the capital's exclusive streets and boulevards lined with fragrant luxury stores.
Shepherds from 32 countries joined in. They had been taking part in a world gathering of nomads and transhumants. The practice involves seasonal livestock movement.
One of them had a particularly challenging task - maintain law and order and the unity of ranks by dragging a wayward sheep back into the fold.
The event highlights a tradition that has allowed herdsmen the right to use Spanish paths in seasonal livestock migrations. Madrid lies in the middle of two such routes.