Punk fans lined up ahead of the Midi Modern Music Festival, China's biggest rock music event, which kicked off on Tuesday and features almost 90 bands.
The festival is being co-sponsored by Greenpeace, which was only recently allowed to set up a branch in China.
Members of Taiwanese band Fish and the Bedroom Riot got into the spirit of things on the first day of the festival.
The festival is taking place on five stages over four days in Haidian Park in Beijing's university district.
Organisers say the role of the festival has been to let the government know rock 'n' roll is not dangerous.
Festivals have frequently been shut down by police at the last minute in Communist China. But Midi organiser Zhang Fan said rock music was now moving towards the mainstream.
The festival, now in its eighth year, began as a showcase for Zhang's Midi Music School, which teaches styles including rock, rap, jazz, techno and blues.
On the festival's first day, more than 50,000 concert-goers crowded into the park.
Organisers expect the number of festival-goers at this year's event to triple compared with 2006.
Chinese bands including Brain Failure, Catcher in the Rye and Reflector are on the bill. Eurhythmics star Dave Stewart and British singer-songwriter Imogen Heap will close the show.