Turkmenistan's President Saparmurat Niyazov established a cult of personality, building many statues of himself across the country.
President Niyazov ruled the energy-rich country for 20 years, styling himself as Turkmenbashi, or Leader of all Turkmens.
Much of the income from energy deals was poured into the capital Ashgabat's showcase projects, such as the presidential palace.
The authoritarian leader tightly censored media, despite inaugurating the book-shaped House of Free Creativity dedicated to the free media in Ashgabat in October.
Mr Niyazov formally opened an amusement park named after him less than two weeks ago. The park features an exhibit of characters from Turkmen folklore.
The park, a national version of Disneyland, is spread over 33 hectares (88 acres).
There are very few textbooks in Turkmenistan's schools apart from works by Mr Niyazov such as his Ruhnama - a mix of history and spiritual guidance.
Known as the Book of the Soul, the Ruhnama was required reading and was treated with the reverence normally reserved for religious works.